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Daosheng

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Daosheng 道生, philosophe et traducteur chinois, moine bouddhique chinois (v. 360-434), fondateur de l’école du Nirvana qui fut importante sous le règne de l’empereur Wu des Liang.

Élève doué, il commença ses études au monastère du mont Lu Shan où il devint l’un des principaux disciples de Huiyuan (de 397 à 401). Il y étudia notamment les texte de l’école Sarvastivada sous la direction de Sanghadeva. Vers 405, il se rend à Chang’an où il collabore à la traduction du Sutra du Lotus et du Vimalakirti sutra au sein de l’école de traduction de Kumarajiva dont il devient l’un des « quatre grands disciples », puis retourne auprès de Huiyan au mont Lu pour y achever son existence. Il y étudie alors le Sutra du Nirvana et l’impose comme la référence de l’école du Nirvana qui s’implante alors en Chine.

Dans son interprétation de ce sutra, censé contenir l’enseignement ultime du Bouddha, Daosheng considère le Mahayana comme une voie de salut universel. Tous les êtres, y compris ceux qui n’ont pas la foi, possèdent la bouddhéïté ou nature de Bouddha. Il n’y a donc pas de différence entre la vacuité, vérité ultime des sutra de la sagesse et la bouddhéïté du sutra du Nirvana.

Selon Daosheng, la bouddhéïté se réalise d’un seul coup par une illumination instantanée et subite. C’est cette bouddhéïté présente en chacun qui entre dans le Nirvana, le samsara n’étant que le chemin conduisant à cette union finale avec Bouddha. Si une pratique préliminaire est nécessaire pour parvenir au “but ultime”, elle ne se confond pas avec l’expérience de l’illumination qui est soudaine, parfaite, immédiate et indivisible. On peut donc s’y préparer, mais on ne peut pas l’acquérir petit à petit. Pour Daosheng, bouddhéïté et vacuité sont donc synonymes de Nirvana, état suprême dénué de qualité et de forme, mais accompagné d’un intense sentiment de félicité. La boudhéïté étant immanente à tous les êtres, Daosheng niait l’existence d’une Terre pure tel que l’enseignait Huiyan et développait une théorie de la rétribution selon laquelle les actes bénéfiques ne produisent pas de Karma. Celui-ci provient de l’activité de l’esprit. Si l’on mène une vie active tournée vers le bien, tout en s’efforçant de neutraliser les mouvements de son esprit, on transcende la loi du Karma et par là le samsara.

Ses thèses, considérées comme révolutionnaires furent d’abord mal accueillies et provoquèrent son exclusion de la communauté monastique. Mais, après la traduction complète du sutra du Nirvana, Daosheng fut réhabilité.

Ses thèses sur l’universalité du Mahayana, sur la bouddhéïté et l’illumination soudaine jouèrent un grand rôle dans le bouddhisme chinois ultérieur, donnant le départ du débat entre gradualisme et subitisme et contribuant à donner au bouddhisme chinois ses tendances les plus caractéristiques.

De l’œuvre de Daosheng ne subsistent que quelques fragments conservés dans des ouvrages collectifs et les commentaires de ses traductions.

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al-Qaeda safe house

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Al-Qaeda is understood[by whom?] to have operated a number of safe houses, some of which were used as training centres.

American intelligence analysts justified the extrajudicial detention of some Guantanamo suspects because they stayed in what they characterized as an Al Qaeda safe house. American intelligence analysts also justify the detention of suspects who stayed in an Al Qaeda guest house, a Taliban safe house or a Taliban guest house.

In the first Seton Hall report, Mark Denbeaux writes that guest houses and/or safe houses are mentioned in the evidence against 27% of detainees. Denbeaux states that “In the region, the term guest house refers simply to a form of travel accommodation” and “Stopping at such facilities is common for all people traveling in the area.” A response to that report written by West Point’s Combating Terrorism Center argued that “the Seton Hall report inaccurately defines the term ‘safe-house’ – a well-known tool leveraged by criminals and terrorists to facilitate discreet movement of associates – as an innocuous residence used by American tourists and travel agencies.” Denbeaux responded that the Seton Hall study had “used the Department of Defense’s terms objectively and accepted their plain meanings” and that “West Point does not provide any basis for equating guest houses and safe houses other than the obvious problem with detaining an individual in part based on his stay in a ‘guest’ house.”

The CTC report states that:

Safe-houses, sometimes referred to as ‘guest-houses,’ facilitate an individual’s ability to discreetly (sic) transit from one location to another by providing them with a place to spend the night, acquire resources, obtain false documentation or secure modes of transportation. Organized crime syndicates, terrorist networks and traffickers all rely on safe-houses to move people from place-to-place. They may be houses, apartments, mosques, stores, refugee camps, barracks, or any other type of infrastructure that houses individuals involved in nefarious activities.

Al-Qa`ida, the Taliban and their associates have leveraged the safe-house network to great ends, particularly in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Many of these houses and apartments, which had been run for the specific purpose of ensuring safe passage for associates of those movements, have been identified by the United States in its ongoing counterterrorism operations.

Benjamin Wittes and his colleagues at the Brookings Institution noted in January 2010 that different judges reviewing the habeas petitions for different Guantanamo captives had reached conflicting conclusions on the common issue of whether an alleged stay in a suspect guest house indicated terrorist affiliation strongly enough to justify continued detention. Wittes and his colleagues, in their analysis of the documents from the first 558 Combatant Status Review Tribunals, reported that continued detention was found justified for 130 Guantanamo captives at least in part because they “stayed in Al Qaeda, Taliban, or other guest- or safehouses.”

Joseph Felter and his colleagues, in “An Assessment of 516 Combatant Status Review Tribunal (CSRT) Unclassified Summaries”, found that 24 percent of the Summary of Evidence memos, or 122 of the 516 they analyzed, justified the continued detention of a captive due to claims of stays in a suspicious guest house or safe house.

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Unité urbaine de Venerque

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Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

L’unité urbaine de Venerque est une unité urbaine française centrée sur la ville de Venerque, département de la Haute-Garonne.

En 2010, selon l’Insee, l’unité urbaine de Venerque est composée de quatre communes, toutes situées dans l’arrondissement de Muret, subdivision administrative du département de la Haute-Garonne.

L’unité urbaine de Venerque appartient à l’aire urbaine de Toulouse.

En 2010, l’Insee a procédé à une révision des délimitations des unités urbaines de la France; celle de Venerque est composée de quatre communes.

Liste des communes appartenant à l’unité urbaine de Venerque selon la nouvelle délimitation de 2010 et sa population municipale en 2010 (liste établie par ordre alphabétique) :

L’évolution démographique ci-dessous concerne l’unité urbaine selon le périmètre défini en 2010.

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Asian psychology

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Asian psychology is a branch of cultural psychology that studies psychological concepts as they relate to Asian culture. Psychologists studying these issue are often aligned with cross-cultural psychology.

As pointed out by Shinobu Kitayama, professor of psychology and Director of the Culture & Cognition Program at the University of Michigan, culture can have a profound impact on the way people think about and perceive the world around them. East Asians may think differently from Westerners (See also, Cultural differences in self-concept and Self-construal.) Kitayama proposed that unlike the traditional American point-of-view which accentuates the importance of one’s self and makes oneself independent, an Asian will instead feel more interdependent.

Asian psychologists wanted to have an expanding role in the science of psychology, but felt limited due to the heavy western influence. Predominant figures in Asian psychology are Quicheng Jing in China, Hiroshi Azuma in Japan, Ku-Shu Yang in Taiwan, and Durganand Sinha in India.

The Asian American Journal of Psychology® is the official publication of the Asian American Psychological Association and is dedicated to research, practice, advocacy, education, and policy within Asian American psychology. The Journal publishes empirical, theoretical, methodological, and practice oriented articles and book reviews covering topics relevant to Asian American individuals and communities, including prevention, intervention, training, and social justice. Particular consideration is given to empirical articles using quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodology.

The Asian Journal of Social Psychology stimulates research and encourages academic exchanges for the advancement of social psychology in Asia. It publishes theoretical and empirical papers by Asian scholars and those interested in Asian cultures and societies.

The Asian Journal of Social Psychology is partly funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Publication of Scientific Research Results from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

AAPA was founded in 1972 and is the largest organization of faculty, students, researchers, and practitioners interested in Asian American psychology. Our members and initiatives have positively impacted psychological treatment, education, training, research, policy and social justice advocacy, through research dissemination, organizational policy statements and collaboration with other psychological organizations for publications, training initiatives, and disseminating resources for serving Asian American communities.

Over the years, the contribution to the study of psychology was done mostly by US European psychologists, however, in recent years this has been changing. More Asian countries than ever before are contributing to psychology at an ever increasing rate.

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Vinter-OL 1992

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Vinter-OL 1992 var de 16. olympiske vinterleker og ble arrangert fra 8. til 23. februar 1992 i Albertville i Frankrike. Dette var de siste vinterlekene som ble arrangert samme året som sommer-OL. Neste vinter-OL kom allerede to år senere, i 1994 på Lillehammer. Norske utøvere presterte igjen på høyt nivå etter heller magre resultater på 1980-tallet, og vant tilsammen ni gull-, seks sølv- og fem bronsemedaljer. De norske utøverne som vant gullmedaljer var Vegard Ulvang på 10 km og 30 km langrenn, Bjørn Dæhlie på 15 km og 50 km langrenn, 4 x 10 km stafett for menn, Finn Christian Jagge i slalåm, Kjetil André Aamodt i super-G, Johann Olav Koss på 1500 m skøyter og Geir Karlstad på 5000 m.

Aking • Alpint • Bobsleigh • Freestyle • Hurtigløp på skøyter • Ishockey • Kortbaneløp • Kunstløp • Nordiske grener • Skiskyting

· · · ·

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Château de Serrant

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The Château de Serrant is a Renaissance château situated in the Loire Valley, the private residence of the Prince of Merode. The castle is 15 kilometres to the west of Angers, it is open to visitors.

The Renaissance château is built on the foundations of a medieval fortress. From the 14th century the castle was held by the Brie family. Charles de Brie was inspired to start modernisation early in the 16th century, but lack of funds meant the project was halted with only the North Tower completed. Ownership of the castle then changed hands several times before Guillaume de Bautru, a State Councillor, purchased the property in 1636. de Bautru restarted the construction that had been halted over a century earlier. By using Charles de Brie’s original plans and the same russet schist and white tuffeau stone, de Bautru ensured that there was a continuity of design. The central halls, two wings and the South Tower were added, with Jules Hardouin Mansart completing the work of de Bautru by building the chapel.

In 1749, the estate was sold by the last surviving descendant of the de Bautru family and was bought by Antoine Walsh, a shipowner whose family were exiled Jacobites. As well as redecorating the interior of the castle, the Walsh family built an English style park, pavilions, and a monumental gate complete with the family crest.

The château eventually passed out of the hands of the Walsh family in 1830 when “Valentine Eugénie Joséphine Walsh de Serrant” married the Duc de La Trémoïlle (1764–1839). La Trémoïlle assigned Luciene Magne the task of restoring the castle and several features, including parapets and cornices, were added. The La Trémoïlle family still own the château, but in the 20th century it has been modernised with cellars and the introduction of electricity.

The current owner is are the descendants of Jean Charles, Prince de Ligne de La Trémoïlle (1911-2005), his daughter is Princesse of Merode by marriage and they are the parents of prince Emmanuel de Merode The castle is notable for the library, stocked with 12,000 books; the vaulted halls, originally home to the kitchens; and Napoleon’s bedroom, which was never used by the Emperor as he stayed at the castle for only two hours.

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Mariah Haberman

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Mariah Haberman (born January 13, 1988) is the host of Discover Wisconsin, a tourism TV show. She resides in Madison, Wisconsin.[citation needed]

Haberman’s hometown is Evansville, Wisconsin. She graduated from the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh in 2010 with degrees in journalism and advertising.

Haberman competed in beauty pageants through the Miss America organization, winning the title of Miss Wisconsin Central in 2012 and advancing to Miss Wisconsin, where she placed in the top 10. Her platform was “Preventing the Preventable – Drinking and Driving”.

After college, she worked for a Chicago marketing firm, then moved to a Madison firm. She was discovered at that firm by Discover Wisconsin; the syndicated show began as a tourism show for the state of Wisconsin in 1987 and Haberman was added as a co-host in 2013. Discover Wisconsin has an estimated audience of 600,000 in the Midwestern United States. She travels throughout Wisconsin taping segments for upcoming episodes. Haberman started the show’s blog.

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Johann Faber

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Johann Faber (1478 – May 21, 1541) was a Catholic theologian known for his writings opposing the Protestant Reformation and the growing Anabaptist movement.

Johann Faber, the son of a blacksmith, was born in Leutkirch, Swabia and studied theology and canon law at Tübingen and Freiburg in the Breisgau region and was made doctor of sacred theology in Freiburg. He eventually became minister of Lindau, Vicar-General of Constance in 1517, Chaplain and confessor to King Ferdinand I of Austria in 1524, and Bishop of Vienna in 1530.

Like others of his time Faber was at first friendly with the Reformers, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Oecolampadius, sympathizing with their efforts at reform and opposing certain abuses himself; but when he realized that neither dogma nor the Church itself was spared by the Reformers, he broke with them and became their most consistent opponent.

Faber wrote his first polemic against Martin Luther, “Opus adversus nova quaedam dogmata Martini Lutheri” in 1552. This was soon followed by his “Malleus Haereticorum, sex libris ad Hadrianum VI summum Pontificem” published in Cologne, in 1524, and Rome in 1569.

It is because of this latter work that he is sometimes called the “hammer of heretics”. He entered into public debate with Zwingli at Zurich – First Zurich Disputation, Jan. 1523 – and was a prominent figure in all the diets held to restore peace to the Church; as well as being one of the committee appointed to draw up a refutation of the Confession of Augsburg. On some points, such as the celibacy of the clergy, he was willing to recognize certain unfortunate conditions if an agreement could be reached to prevent similar conditions in the future, but no agreement was possible. He was sent by Ferdinand to Spain and then to Henry VIII in England to seek aid against the invading Turks; King Ferdinand also had him enlist the services of the University of Vienna to help combat the spread of the doctrines of Luther in Austria.

As Bishop of Vienna his zeal was unbounded; he protected his flock by frequent preaching and numerous writings, and he held regular conferences with his clergy. He founded twelve scholarships for boys who wished to become priests but did not have the means to realize their ambition.

He died in Vienna, 21 May 1541.

Johann Faber works (German and Latin) are homiletical and polemical in character. Besides those already mentioned he wrote treatises on faith and good works, on the Sacrifice of the Mass; an instruction and answer to Luther’s work against the King of England; a treatise against the more recent tenets of Luther; a comparison of the writings of Jan Hus and Luther; the power of the pope in the case of Luther; an answer to six articles of Zwingli; defence of Catholic belief against the chief Anabaptist, Balthasar of Friedberg; a book on the religion of the Russians; sermons on the misery of life and on the Blessed Sacrament; as well as sermons of consolation and courage whilst the Turks were besieging Vienna. His works in three folio volumes (Cologne, 1537–40) do not contain his polemical writings; these are found in “Opuscula quaedam Joannis Fabri, Episcopi Viennensis published in Leipzig, 1537.

While a canon of the cathedral of Basle Johann Faber formed a friendship with Erasmus that lasted throughout their lives; it was Erasmus who persuaded Faber to take up the study of the Fathers.

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Juhani Aho

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Juhani Aho (Lapinlahti, 11 de septiembre de 1861-Helsinki, 8 de agosto de 1921), cuyo nombre verdadero fue Johannes Brofeldt hasta 1907, fue un escritor y periodista finlandés que cultivó la novela y la poesía. Su carrera como escritor duró cerca de cuarenta años.​

Nacido como Johannes Brofeldt, hijo del decano Henrik Gustaf Theodor Brofeldt y de Karolina Fredrika Emelie Snellman, Aho comenzó a escribir en sueco en el instituto, pero fue por influencia de Runeberg que más tarde escribió en finés.

En la universidad estuvo asociado al grupo literario de Arvid Järnefelt, y mantuvo correspondencia con la esposa de este, Elisabeth Järnefelt, quien le antería a escribir.

Aho comenzó como un autor de estilo realista en su primera novela Rautatie (literalmente del finés ‘Ferrocarril’), que se considera como uno de sus trabajos más importantes.

Más tarde se dedicó al neoromanticismo con las novelas Panu (1897) y Kevät ja takatalvi (en finés: La primavera y el final del invierno) (1906), siendo esta última una de sus obras más aclamadas, llevada a la ópera por Arne Merikanto y al cine en tres ocasiones, la más reciente de ellas en 1999, por Aki Kaurismäki.

Su novela Yksin (Solamente), publicada en 1890, es una historia de amor de carácter autobiográfico que refiere a la pasión de Aho por Aino Järnefeldt, quien al momento se hallaba secretamente comprometida con Jean Sibelius, con quien más tarde habría de casarse.

Los celos y el enojo que provocaron en Sibelius la publicación de la novela se olvidaron gradualmente, y más tarde en su vida, Aho y Sibelius fueron amigos cercanos, así como vecinos en Järvenpää, donde el compositor tenía una villa a la que había bautizado como “Ainola” (El reino de Aino).

Aho contrajo nupcias el 21 de septiembre de 1891 con la pintora Vendla Soldán-Brofeldt, conocida por el nombre de “Venny”.

Además de sus novelas, Aho escribió una serie de cuentos cortos de distintos estilos llamados Lastuja (en español Fichas). Sus temáticas varían desde las alegorías políticas hasta los retratos de la vida cotidiana.

La primera (y considerada la más famosa) de sus historias cortas es Siihen aikaan kun isä lampun osti (traducida al inglés como Cuando papá trajo a casa la lámpara), que retrata los efectos de la modernización en la vida de las personas en las regiones rurales. En la actualidad el título de la obra ha pasado a ser una expresión de carácter popular para referirse a la introducción de nuevas tecnologías.

Aho fue uno de los fundadores del Päivälehti, que sería el predecesor del Helsingin Sanomat (Noticias de Helsinki), el periódico de mayor tiraje en Finlandia.

En su momento, Aho fue el más conocido de los escritores de Finlandia en Europa, en parte quizás a las rápidas traducciones de las que sus obras fueron objeto.​ Para la década de 1890, sus libros se habían traducido a 10 idiomas.​

En su vejez soñó con el premio Nobel.​

en el Proyecto Gutenberg. (en finés)

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Real plane curve

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In mathematics, a real plane curve is usually a real algebraic curve defined in the real projective plane.

Since the real number field is not algebraically closed, the geometry of even a plane curve C in the real projective plane is not a very easy topic. Assuming no singular points, the real points of C form a number of ovals, in other words submanifolds that are topologically circles. The real projective plane has a fundamental group that is a cyclic group with two elements. Such an oval may represent either group element; in other words we may or may not be able to contract it down in the plane. Taking out the line at infinity L, any oval that stays in the finite part of the affine plane will be contractible, and so represent the identity element of the fundamental group; the other type of oval must therefore intersect L.

There is still the question of how the various ovals are nested. This was the topic of Hilbert’s sixteenth problem. See Harnack’s curve theorem for a classical result.

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