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Frank Forst

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Frank Forst (* 1969 in Aalen) ist Professor für Fagott an der Hochschule für Musik Franz Liszt in Weimar.
Forst erhielt mit elf Jahren ersten Fagottunterricht und war bis 1989 Schüler Gerhard Hases in Stuttgart. 1987 gewann er beim Bundeswettbewerb Jugend musiziert den ersten Preis.
1989–1992 folgte ein Studium an der Musikhochschule Hannover bei Klaus Thunemann. 1991 wurde Forst bei dem internationalen Musikwettbewerb Prager Frühling ausgezeichnet und erhielt ein Stipendium des Deutschen Musikwettbewerbs mit anschließender Aufnahme in die Bundesauswahl Konzerte Junger Künstler. Von 1990 bis 1992 war er Mitglied der Jungen Deutschen Philharmonie.
Er war von 1992 bis 2003 Solofagottist beim Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester und von 1996 bis 2003 Assistent von Klaus Thunemann in Berlin. Seit 1997 ist er zusätzlich Solofagottist der Camerata Salzburg. Mit Beginn des Wintersemesters 2003/04 wurde er zum Professor der Hochschule für Musik Franz Liszt Weimar ernannt.
Forst ist unter anderem als Solist mit Orchestern wie dem Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester, der Camerata Salzburg MCM Rucksack 2016, dem Philharmonischen Orchester Bremen, der Staatsphilharmonie Rheinland-Pfalz, der Nordwestdeutschen Philharmonie, der Camerata Europaea und dem Neuen Berliner Kammerorchester aufgetreten.
Er unterrichtet bei Meisterkursen in Ländern wie Deutschland, Japan, den USA, Russland 2016 fußball trikots online, China, Taiwan, Spanien, Griechenland, Ungarn und Luxemburg.
Komponisten wie Leo Eylar, Peter Hope und Martin Peter haben ihm und seiner Frau Yukiko Sano mehrere Kompositionen gewidmet.
Seit mehreren Jahren beschäftigt er sich auch intensiv mit historischer Spielpraxis und spielt Dulcian, Barockfagott, klassisches und romantisches Fagott.
Er ist außerdem Gründungsmitglied des Solisten-Ensembles Berlin und des Euphorion-Ensembles.

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Treaty of Orihuela

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Treaty of Orihuela (also known as the Treaty of Tudmir/Theodemir) was an early Dhimmi treaty imposed by the invading Moors on the Christians in the city of Orihuela in the Iberian Peninsula in 713 AD.

The Treaty of Tudmir was a pact made between ‘Abd al-‘Aziz (son of Musa bin Nusair, governor of North Africa) and the Christian Visigoth Theodemir, Tudmir in Arabic (prince and governor of the region of Murcia in the Iberian Peninsula) in the early eighth century. This accord was created in 713 C. E., two years after the Islamic conquest of Spain began; it bears special significance with regard to the Muslims’ diplomatic behavior and their treatment of enemies and conquered peoples. It suggests the Muslims succeeded in a peaceful take-over of southern Spain, specifically Orihuela, Villena, Alicante, Mula, Bigastro, Ello, and Lorca. The agreement stated that the Murcians could keep control and continue to practice their Christian faith but only if they paid the taxes and did not aid Muslim enemies. Although the Treaty of Tudmir itself may not seem to have been particularly noteworthy in its own context, and despite the fact that literature which is germane specifically to the Treaty is somewhat rare, it should be considered important in retrospect due to its cultural, religious, and sociological implications. To better understand these implications, it is important to review an initial course of the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
Islamic control spread greatly under the Umayyad caliphate. It had reached all the way to Western Africa in Maghrib where the Berbers lived. These peoples fought hard and mostly retreated to the mountains while some clans from the main routes and plains of the coast submitted as dhimmis too or converted to Islam and at any case were promptly joined by the Arabs to their military machine

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. With their superior military arms and skills the caliphs were able to extend their control into Spain.
The first notable Islamic conqueror to enter Spain was the Berber commander Tariq ibn Ziyad. Musá ibn Nusayr was the governor of Northern Africa under the caliph of that period, and it was he who ordered Tariq to make the initial surge into Spain via Gibraltar in spring of the year 711. Once in Gibraltar, Tariq took time to secure a base of operations for his forces and fortified it with a wall, among other defenses. As soon as this was accomplished, Tariq sent an invasion force to the city of Carteya (or Cartaja) and the district of Algeciras, and both were promptly subdued. In little more than two months, Tariq had worked his way steadily through the south of Spain; he began his plunge into central Spain in a battle with the Visigothic King Roderic at Wadi Bakkah. Here, Tariq defeated the army of Roderick against reportedly overwhelming odds. Tariq moved thence to the cities of Écija and Córdoba, effectively ignoring commands he had previously received from Musá to return to Africa or to remain stationary until the governor’s arrival in Spain. After attacking and overpowering these cities, Tariq moved on with relative ease as far as Guadalajara, Spain. He quickly took control of Toledo and its surrounding territories before lack of reinforcements from Musá necessitated his withdrawal, whereupon he retreated to Toledo and remained there until Musá himself came to meet him with scorn and jealousy, demanding the spoils of the conquest

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Shortly after Musá arrived in Toledo, the Caliph al-Walid ordered him and Tariq to appear in the royal court in Damascus to speak of their campaign in Spain. Upon Musá’s departure for Damascus, he abdicated his authority over the conquered regions to his son ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, who carried on his father’s and Tariq’s work. It was ‘Abd al-‘Aziz who eventually reached the region of Murcia in his conquests, where he encountered and signed a treaty with the above mentioned Visigothic lord of the region, Theodemir. It was this treaty that became known as the Treaty of Tudmir, and the land of Murcia thereafter was known also as Tudmir.
Muslim general in North Africa who led the conquest of Spain. He was known for his great leadership and warrior skills. His origins are slightly unknown but he may have been a freedman linked to the Yemenite tribe and is suggested that his father was a commander of the caliph’s bodyguard. He supported the Caisites against Merwan. After being accused of mistrust, he fled to Egypt and found refuge from its governor ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn Marwan, and he changed his support in favor of the reigning caliphs. He became governor of Northern Africa in 698 and quickly extended his control all the way to Maghrib in West Africa, where he took control of the Berbers and integrated them into the Muslim army. September 714 brought an end to the Spanish conquests and the end of Musá’s career. He headed to Damascus with much of the spoils and captives but the caliph al-Walid viewed him with suspicion. Musá died penniless sometime around 716.
A Berber commander in the Muslim army under Musá ibn Nusayr, he led the conquest into Spain in 711 with about 7,000 soldiers. Where he landed has since been named after him: Gibraltar, or “Jabal Tariq”, which in Arabic means “Mount of Tariq”. He swept through much of southern Spain and conquered the capital of Toledo

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. It is also said he acquired the bejeweled “table of Solomon” in Alcala de Henares.
Son of Musá. He was sent on two operations in Spain: one to the west towards Huelva and the other to the east where he initiated the Treaty of Tudmir in Murcia.
Umayyad Caliph at the time of the initial conquests in the Iberian Peninsula who was influential in the events that led to the development of the Treaty of Tudmir. Al-Walid was the son of ‘Abd al-Malik, and his reign was a highly prosperous one. Marked by extravagant building projects and restorations in the new capital of Damascus, the administration of al-Walid was very wealthy, though this affluence was owed in great part to the prudent management of his father from whom he inherited the Caliphate. It was under the rule of al-Walid that the realms of Carthage and the Maghrib in Northern Africa were finally subdued. Musá ibn Nusayr was made governor of the provinces of that region under the order of al-Walid, and from this point, the focus of expansion was set on the Iberian Peninsula. After the conquest of Spain, the spoils of the campaign were handed over to al-Walid, and all three figures gradually faded from notoriety, but it was under the mandate of al-Walid that ‘Abd al-‘Aziz made the Treaty of Tudmir with Theodemir.
Christian Visigoth prince of Murcia. The Treaty of Tudmir was made between Theodemir and ‘Abd al-‘Aziz.
“In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate. This is a document [granted] by ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn Musá ibn Nusair to Tudmir, son of Ghabdush, establishing a treaty of peace and the promise and protection of God and his Prophet) may God bless him and grant him peace). We [‘Abd al-‘Aziz] will not set special conditions for him or for any among his men, nor harass him, nor remove him from power. His followers will not be killed or taken prisoner, nor will they be separated from their women and children. They will not be coerced in matters of religion, their churches will not be burned, nor will sacred objects be taken from the realm, [so long as] he [Tudmir] remains sincere and fulfills the [following] conditions that we have set for him. He has reached a settlement concerning seven towns: Orihuela, Villena, Alicante, Mula, Bigastro, Ello, and Lorca. He will not give shelter to fugitives, nor to our enemies, nor encourage any protected person to fear us, nor conceal news of our enemies. He and [each of] his men shall [also] pay one dinar every year, together with four measures of wheat, four measures of barley, four liquid measures of concentrated fruit juice, four liquid meastures of vinegar, four of honey, and four of olive oil. Slaves must each pay half of this amount. {Names of four witnesses follow, and the document is dated from the Muslim month of Rajab, in the year 94 of the Hijra (April 713).}”

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Carl August Brentano-Mezzegra

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Carl August Brentano-Mezzegra, auch Karl August von Brentano, (* 28. August 1817 in Augsburg; † 16. September 1896 in München) war ein deutscher Seidenfabrikant.
Brentano besuchte die Technische Universität Wien und trat in das Familienunternehmen „Seidenmanufaktur Pelloux & Brentano“ ein nike footaball Strumpf und Kappe Auslass, das Mitte der 1780er Jahre von den Brüder Anton und Carl Brentano-Mezzegra fußballtrikots verkauf 2016, Nachfahren einer aus Italien stammenden Familie von Seidenhändlern, und ihres Schwagers Anton Pelloux in Göggingen als eine Seidenspinnerei und Weberei eröffnet und 1793 als Kurfürstlich pfalzbayerische privilegierte Seidenmanufaktur ins bayerische Lechhausen verlegt wurde. Er übernahm 1844 das Unternehmen von seinem Vater Karl. Er wurde als Unternehmer der „Samt-Seidenzeug und Kirchenornat-Fabrik“ in Lechhausen bei Augsburg bekannt, insbesondere auch, weil er seine Fabriken nach christlichen Grundsätzen leitete. Die Spinnerei- und Webereifabriken wandelte er 1868 als Aktiengesellschaft um, weil der aus der Ehe mit seiner Frau Anna stammende einzige Sohn mit 21 Jahren verstarb MCM Rucksack 2016. „Die Fabrik zählte zu den bedeutendsten ihrer Art in ganz Deutschland, die an 200 verschiedenen Maschinen 40 bis 50 Personen beschäftigte und bis zu 1000 Pfund Rohseide pro Jahr verarbeitete. In dem großen Garten bei der Fabrik betrieb Brentano eine Maulbeerenzucht und ließ selbst auch Seidenspinner züchten.“
1847 rief Brentano den „Kreis-Frauen-Verein zur Beförderung der Seidenzucht“ ins Leben und engagierte sich dort über viele Jahre als Sekretär. Er war zudem beratendes Mitglied und Referent des Kreis-Seidenbau-Vereines. Des Weiteren befand sich Brentano im Range eines Oberstleutnants Distrikts-Inspektor der Landwehr im Regierungsbezirk Schwaben und Neuburg. Carl August Brentano wurde 1846 in den erblichen Adelsstand erhoben.
Im November 1848 war Brentano Mitbegründer des „Konstitutionell-monarchische Vereins“. Aus diesem Umfeld entstanden 1849 der Piusverein in Augsburg, die zu den Katholischen Vereinen Deutschlands gehörte. Brentano engagierte sich hier besonders während der Revolution 1848/49. Er war Abgeordneter für Augsburg und Aschaffenburg der Generalversammlung der Katholischen Vereine.
Carl August Brentano stellte zusammen mit dem Juristen und Publizisten Moritz Lieber das Präsidium des zweiten Deutschen Katholikentages vom 9. bis 12. Mai 1849 in Breslau.

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USS Terrebonne Parish (LST-1156)

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USS Terrebonne Parish (LST-1156), originally USS LST-1156, affectionately nicknamed the “T-Bone” by her early crew, was a Terrebonne Parish-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy in 1952. The lead ship in her class, she was named for Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, the only U.S. Navy vessel to bear the name. The ship was later transferred to Spain and renamed SPS Velasco (L-11), and was scrapped in 1994.

Terrebonne Parish was originally laid down as USS LST-1156 on 2 January 1952 at Bath, Maine, by Bath Iron Works. She was launched on 9 August 1952, sponsored by Miss Anne L. McCrea, and commissioned on 21 November 1952 with Lieutenant Commander Henry L. Porter in command.
Following sea trial and shakedown, LST-1156 underwent post-shakedown alterations at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard at Portsmouth, Virginia, before commencing operations out of Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek at Virginia Beach, Virginia, with Amphibious Forces, United States Atlantic Fleet, on 14 September 1953. The ship then conducted training exercises out of Little Creek before entering the Norfolk Navy Yard for conversion to an LST flotilla flagship, involving the installation of much new communications equipment.
LST-1156 remained on operations out of Little Creek through June 1955. On 1 July 1955 she was named USS Terrebonne Parish.
Following operations in the Caribbean and off North Carolina and overhaul at the Charleston Naval Shipyard at Charleston, South Carolina, Terrebonne Parish conducted a cruise to Lisbon, Portugal, and Port Lyautey, French Morocco, before resuming local operations out of Little Creek. She continued participating in exercises and assault landings in the Caribbean and returned to Norfolk, Virginia, on 14 May 1957 to resume local operations and LST training.
On 29 August 1957, Terrebonne Parish cleared Naval Station Norfolk for Morehead City, North Carolina, and, on 30 August 1957, embarked United States Marines, vehicles, and cargo for transport to the Mediterranean. She joined units of the United States Sixth Fleet at Taranto, Italy, on 16 September 1957.
Around September 1957, LST 1157 transported MCB 7, Detachment K (and all of their equipment) from Port Layouty, Morocco too Davisville, RI

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During her subsequent Mediterranean tour pf duty, she took part in North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) landing exercises at Saros Gulf, Turkey Cheap Adidas Soccer Jerseys Outlet, and visited ports in Turkey, mainland Greece, mainland Italy, Crete, and Sicily before returning to the United States on 12 February 1958 and resuming local operations out of Little Creek.
Following overhaul and refresher training, Terrebonne Parish again deployed to the Mediterranean for duty with the Sixth Fleet in September 1958, serving as part of Service Force, Mediterranean, before returning westward once again to the United States and operations off the United States East Coast and in Caribbean waters.
On 16 June 1959 Terrebonne Parish commenced an “inland seas” cruise, transiting the St. Lawrence Seaway and calling at Iroquois, Cape Vincent, and Port Weller, Ontario, Canada; Ashtabula, Ohio; Kenosha, Wisconsin; Chicago, Illinois; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Cleveland, Ohio; Erie, Pennsylvania; Port Colburne, Ontario; and Rochester, New York, before returning to her home base at Little Creek on 6 August.
Terrebonne Parish also participated in Exercise TRALEX in 1959, one of the largest amphibious warfare exercises conducted in that year.
Terrebonne Parish conducted yearly deployments to the Mediterranean, with periodic overhauls and exercises, through 1961.
In late October 1962, after the United States detected the presence of Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba, the United States instituted a naval blockade – termed a “quarantine” by the United States Government – of Cuba, throwing a naval cordon around the island. During these emergency preparations, Terrebonne Parish operated with the Atlantic Fleet Amphibious Force through December 1962, when the Cuban Missile Crisis finally subsided.
Attached to Amphibious Forces, Atlantic Fleet, Amphibious Squadron 6, Terrebonne Parish conducted operations off the Virginia Capes in January and February 1963 and then was overhauled in Jacksonville, Florida, before she again departed for the Mediterranean. During her 1963 deployment with the 6th Fleet, Terrebonne Parish participated in MEDLANDEX, a joint American-Spanish exercise in which 3,000 American and Spanish Marines were landed with support from aircraft carrier-based aircraft.
Terrebonne Parish remained in the Mediterranean until February 1964 before returning to the United States for amphibious exercises in the spring of 1964 at Onslow Beach, North Carolina, and off Cape Pendleton, Virginia. She proceeded to New York City in July 1964 to participate as an exhibit in the New York World’s Fair before taking part in an amphibious exercise with Marines and United States Naval Academy midshipmen off Camp Pendleton.
Early in the autumn of 1964, Terrebonne Parish embarked the men and vehicles of “C” Company, 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, and proceeded for Huelva, Spain, to take part in “Exercise Steel Pike,” in which she became the first LST to “marry” to an eighteen-section causeway for landing her embarked vehicles.
For the remainder of her Mediterranean deployment, Terrebonne Parish took part in landing exercises off Sardinia and Corsica and made visits to ports in Italy, France, Greece, and Spain, spending the Christmas holidays in Barcelona, Spain, in late December 1964 and New Year’s Eve (31 December 1964) at Valencia, Spain.
Returning home to the United States towards the end of March 1965, Terrebonne Parish transported a United States Marine Corps missile detachment to the Caribbean, and then underwent extensive overhaul for four months by the Bethlehem Steel shipyard at Baltimore, Maryland. After refresher training, Terrebonne Parish got underway for the Caribbean on 3 March 1966 to begin a four-month deployment to participate in exercises and operations involving beachings and landings. She next made two lifts to the Dominican Republic in late August and early September 1965.
During this Caribbean tour, a locking device was developed for the sand flaps on the ship’s bow doors to keep them secure while underway, and it was installed on Terrebonne Parish in January 1966 at San Juan, Puerto Rico. Tests proved that the new devices were very efficient. As a result, this modification was approved for all LSTs.
Terrebonne Parish commenced her seventh Mediterranean deployment on 30 March 1967. when she embarked Marines of the 1st Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, at Morehead City and crossed the Atlantic Ocean in company with four minesweepers of Mine Division 83. Upon arriving at Aranci Bay, Sardinia, on 19 April 1967, she joined Amphibious Squadron 6, Task Force 61, and soon participated in “Exercise Fairgame Five,” a joint French-American amphibious exercise which brought together elements of the French Army, French Navy, French Commandos, and French Foreign Legion, and a joint United States Navy-United States Marine Corps team.
Terrebonne Parish then headed for the western half of the Mediterranean and proceeded to Italy and Crete for further exercises. While she was at Taormina, Sicily, in late July 1967, volunteers from her ship’s company and embarked Marines went ashore to battle a raging brush fire threatening the town of Giardini.
Leaving Taormina on 7 August 1967 and arriving at Porto Scudo, Sardinia, on 12 August 1967, Terrebonne Parish took part in further amphibious exercises before she re-embarked her Marines after field exercises and proceeded to Malaga, Spain, for further amphibious training operations. She subsequently departed Rota, Spain, on 2 September 1967 for her return voyage to the United States.
Terrebonne Parish deployed to the Mediterranean in 1969, then deployed to the Caribbean early in 1970 as part of the Caribbean Ready Group in Exercise “Carib 1–70,” which also included amphibious assault ship USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7), dock landing ship USS Spiegel Grove (LSD-32), attack cargo ship USS Vermilion (AKA-107), and tank landing ship USS Suffolk County (LST-1173). During this deployment, she visited Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, periodically to practice amphibious operations. Other ports visited during this cruise were Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, where the ship’s company built playground equipment at a local school; San Juan, Puerto Rico; St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands; Martinique, French West Indies; Colon, Panama; Aruba, Netherlands West Indies; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; and Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico. Terrebonne Parish also participated in an emergency deployment of the Caribbean Ready Group from San Juan, steaming out of sight of land between the islands of Trinidad and Tobago following an attempted coup against the government of Trinidad and Tobago. En route from Aruba, she participated in joint naval exercises with the Venezuelan Navy.
Following return from Carib 1–70, Terrebonne Parish participated in riverine operations in St. Helena Sound, South Carolina. As one of the ships in Amphibious Forces, Atlantic, she earned more Battle E awards than most of the other ships in that command.
In September 1970, Terrebonne Parish steamed in company with the flagship of Commander, Amphibious Forces, Atlantic – amphibious force command ship USS Pocono (AGC-16) – and USS Spiegel Grove—to Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and encountered a confluence of two storms in which she took “green water” on occasion 25 feet, (7.6 meters) over her bows, heavily damaging many weather deck fixtures and equipment. During one 24-hour period, the formation of ships was only able to make one nautical mile (1.85 kilometers) good over the ground.
Terrebone Parish returned to the Mediterranean in late 1970 for her ninth deployment.
In 1971, still homeported at Little Creek, Virginia and operating under command of Amphibious Forces, Atlantic, Terrebonne Parish deployed to the Caribbean for exercises and training activities. These included an operation from 5 to 10 August 1971 in which United States Army and Panamanian National Guard units participated

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Soon after returning from Panama, Terrbonne Parish began preparations for her upcoming transfer to the Spanish government. On 29 October 1971 the ship was decommissioned and loaned over to the Spanish Navy at Little Creek the same day. Terrebonne Parish was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 November 1976 and sold outright to Spain on 17 May 1978.
Renamed Velasco (L-11), the ship served Spain until decommissioned by the Spanish Navy and used as a training hulk for UOE (“Unidad de Operaciones Especiales”, a Naval Special Operations Unit) at La Carraca shipyard, Cádiz, Spain.
Velasco was scrapped in 1994.

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CIÉ 2600 Class

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The Córas Iompair Éireann (CIÉ) 2600 Class were Associated Equipment Company (AEC)–engined diesel multiple units (normally termed railcars in Ireland) that operated InterCity and suburban services on the CIÉ system between 1952 and 1975. Many were later converted for push–pull operation with diesel locomotives, finally being withdrawn when displaced by the electric Dublin Area Rapid Transit service in the mid-1980s.

The first single-unit diesel railcars in Ireland were introduced on the narrow-gauge County Donegal and Clogher Valley railways in the early 1930s. The Great Northern Railway and Northern Counties Committee followed shortly thereafter. However, early railcar trains did not exceed two cars in length. Early in 1948, the GNR(I) ordered a fleet of 20 railcars, capable of operating in pairs with one or two intermediate trailer cars, from AEC. Introduced in 1950 and 1951, these vehicles drew on AEC’s experience with the Great Western Railway’s pre-war railcars. The cars combined AEC diesel engines (two per car, each of 125 bhp (93 kW)) with bodywork by Park Royal Vehicles. CIÉ had been interested in railcars since its inception in 1945, but an initial plan for a four-car diesel-electric unit was cancelled. However, the success of the GNR(I) cars and the 1948 Milne Report’s recommendations in favour of railcars (but not diesel locomotives) encouraged the company to place a large-scale order with AEC in September 1950. (Note also that 10 of the 20 GNR(I) AEC cars were inherited by CIÉ on the Great Northern’s dissolution in 1958, along with 10 of 24 later cars built by the Great Northern Railway Board on British United Traction (BUT) underframes; the remainder went to the Ulster Transport Authority—see also UTA AEC.)
In 1951, CIÉ ordered a series of 60 cars similar to the GNR(I) examples, again combining AEC engines and Park Royal bodywork. These vehicles were almost identical to the GNR(I) units but incorporated improvements derived from experience with the latter; most notably, up to four power cars

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, rather than two, could operate in multiple. They were delivered between March 1952 and September 1954 and numbered in the series 2600–2659.
Six additional cars (2660–2665) were ordered in August 1954. Delivered in 1956, they were mechanically identical to the earlier vehicles—although the engines were now designated as BUT, rather than AEC, products. However, the cars’ bodywork was constructed at CIÉ’s Inchicore Works to a distinctive design by the company’s Chief Mechanical Engineer, Oliver Bulleid. (It may be noted that CIÉ had faced political pressure to build the bodywork of the original cars itself, rather than importing complete vehicles.) Although the cars’ length and width were identical to those of their predecessors, they were distinguished by flat sides and a high, flat front end. Even-numbered cars had the standard composite (two-class) seating arrangement, whereas odd-numbered ones had a single-class layout. The Bulleid cars had a short career in their original form, soon being rebuilt as powered intermediates (see below).
Various carriages were fitted or retrofitted with jumper cables to allow their operation in a railcar train. There were at least 88 trailers in total, including pre-1950s stock (one example dating from 1902), 1950s CIÉ vehicles, other 1950s stock from Park Royal Vehicles (manufacturer of the railcars’ own bodywork) and 1960s Cravens vehicles.
Examples included three composite (i.e. two-class) vehicles specially modified to work as through Cork–Belfast coaches on the Enterprise, and 14 buffet cars capable of functioning either as a conventional buffet car (in which passengers consumed their food in the car itself) in locomotive-hauled trains, or as a kitchen vehicle with ordinary seating in railcar trains (whose passengers were served food at their seats, either in the car or elsewhere in the train) which were built in 1953 and 1954. Trailers generally ran between a pair of power cars, although there were a number of driving trailers, described below; additionally, ordinary trailers were sometimes marshalled at the tail of a train, particularly in the 2600s’ early days.
Two special Park Royal trailer vehicles for service on the isolated Waterford and Tramore Railway were built in 1955. These vehicles, like the railcars they worked with, had high-density seating arrangements. One of them was, additionally, fitted out as a driving trailer, with a guard’s compartment at the non-cab end and a large area set aside for prams. Two further driving trailers, known as “mules,” were converted from 1953-built hauled stock but were used only briefly, working as part of the Westport portion of a Dublin–Galway/Westport train.
The 2600 Class were effectively identical to the GNR(I) cars in overall configuration, having a full-width driver’s cab at one end, a gangway at the other, and underfloor engines. Their bodywork was conventional for CIÉ stock of the time, consisting of steel panels on timber framing. The underframe was of steel channel construction.
The 2600s shared the engines and transmission of their GNR(I) predecessors, having two 250 brake horsepower (190 kW), 9.6-litre, six-cylinder, four-stroke engines driving the inner axles of the two bogies via fluid flywheels and Self-Changing Gears five-speed preselector gearboxes, with cardan shafts driving forward/reverse gearboxes on the ends of the axles. Multiple working was via 24-core jumper cables. The cars were fitted with two parallel vacuum brake systems—a conventional system and a second high-vacuum, quick-release system, based on reservoirs in which a vacuum was continually maintained, for use on services with frequent stops. Steam heating was originally fitted; even-numbered cars had a boiler in the guard’s compartment, capable of supplying steam for up to four cars. Cars used on suburban services were subsequently fitted with a bus-type heating system that utilised the engines’ cooling water.
Almost all the cars were delivered with a two-class layout. A 12-seat first class saloon was located at the cab end of the car, a glazed partition behind the cab permitting forward (or rearward) views through the windscreen. A 32-seat second class (known as third class until 1956) saloon was positioned towards the gangway end, and there was also a guard’s compartment and, in cars 2600–2647, a toilet. Cars 2648–2657 were intended for suburban use and devoid of toilets, permitting an extra four second class seats; apart from a lack of tables, they were otherwise identical to cars intended for longer-distance service. However, odd-numbered cars in this series subsequently had their guard’s compartments removed to provide additional seating. Exceptionally, two cars (2658–2659) for use on the Waterford and Tramore Railway were delivered with high-density, single-class (although still divided into two saloons) layouts without toilets

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; the guard’s compartment was also omitted from one car. Special trailer cars (see above) with similar high-density layouts operated with them. Most other cars were refitted with high-density, single-class layouts in the 1960s and early 1970s; these layouts seated between 70 and 91, depending on whether the toilet, guard’s compartment or both were retained.
When originally delivered, the railcars were employed on mainline express trains, including crack workings such as a three-hour nonstop service between Dublin and Cork. Eight-car formations were commonly deployed on these duties, sometimes splitting en route to serve (for example) Tralee and Cork or Galway and Westport. By 1954, they were also operating on longer secondary and branch routes, such as Cork–Bantry. However, the arrival of diesel locomotives from 1955 onwards displaced the mainline 2600s to secondary workings.
Moreover, the fact that CIÉ operated its railcars in four-car (two power cars, two trailers) or eight-car (four power cars, four trailers) sets, whereas the Great Northern—and, in general, its successor in Northern Ireland, the Ulster Transport Authority—used its near-identical vehicles in two-car (both power cars) or three-car (two power cars, one trailer) sets, meant that the 2600s had a poor power-to-weight ratio. One solution initially employed at busy times was to operate certain trains in a so-called “6+2” formation, comprising a power car, four intermediate trailers (usually including a dining car) and a second power car—thus giving passenger access throughout all six cars—followed by two extra power cars which were normally locked and inaccessible to passengers. From 1961, this arrangement was superseded by the use of powered intermediate cars, discussed below. By 1969, although suburban workings on “the relatively flat sections around Dublin” were formed of two power cars and two trailers, the remaining mainline workings used two-car sets.
Additionally, obtaining spare parts proved troublesome as the railcars aged. As early as 1968, the AEC engines were considered obsolete, and spares were “virtually impossible” to obtain, forcing CIÉ to cannibalise some of the 2600s in order to keep the remainder running.
In 1969, the only mainline services remaining railcar-operated were one round trip per day on each of the Sligo–Dublin and Dublin–Rosslare routes. The last mainline working was on the Dublin–Rosslare route in April 1970. By 1971, conversions of the cars to push–pull stock had begun. Early in 1972, it was reported that only a small railcar fleet would be retained in operational condition, pending the introduction of the push–pull trains. In late 1974, eight cars were reportedly being kept operational to address a shortage of locomotives “by reason of damage by accidents and bomb incidents.” The last five railcars were withdrawn on 20 September 1975. Ten of the 2600 Class, along with 19 of the AEC and BUT cars inherited from the Great Northern, were broken up rather than converted to push–pull stock.
Cars 2614, 2617 and 2656 from the original fleet were rebuilt following severe collision or fire damage. Cars 2614 and 2617 were returned to service in 1960 with new bodies whose sides resembled the Bulleid cars’ but whose ends were similar to those of the original batch

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. These cars were further rebuilt in 1961, this time along with 2656 and all the Bulleid cars, into “powered intermediates” with engines but not cabs, which were renumbered into the 2660 series. Odd-numbered powered intermediates seated 60, while even-numbered cars had 52 seats and a guard’s compartment. The cars were substituted for trailer vehicles in certain trains, improving the trains’ power-to-weight ratio. Other cars underwent changes in the seating layout, discussed above, as they were reassigned from long-distance to suburban service.
In 1971, with the process of modifying railcars for suburban operations still underway, work began on the first conversions to push–pull stock for service with the then recently re-engined 201 Class locomotives. The conversion was intended to address both the cars’ poor power-to-weight ratio and the increasing difficulties in obtaining spare parts for their engines. The first test runs were made on the Dublin–Cork line in mid-February 1972. Trials on the Dublin suburban lines commenced in June 1972, and sets began entering service in February 1973. Operation on the Cork–Cobh line was also considered at one point.
There were four types of push–pull vehicle:
All cars’ toilets were removed. There were originally nine five-car and three four-car sets. The first sets to enter service had the locomotive at the north end, but later ones were marshalled with the locomotive at the south end; the earlier sets were then turned on the triangle at Limerick Junction to standardise the position. However, the number of available driving trailers declined due to a spate of fires (at one stage, a “spare man” travelled in each driving trailer’s generator compartment to detect and extinguish fires) and the fatal collision at Gormanston in 1974. There were only six driving trailers available by 1982; conventional locomotive haulage was, thus, often substituted for push–pull operation.
The push–pull sets were “not very attractive and were not very comfortable”, particularly due to ride problems arising from the vehicles’ reduced weight compared to the original railcars. However, they “were cheap and could be quickly produced” and survived, “deeply unloved by those travelling,” until (and, in some cases beyond) electrification.
Although the railcars had already received high-density seating, overcrowding of the push–pull trains was such that the transverse seats were replaced by longitudinal ones to give more standing room. Notoriously, the seating provided was similar to contemporaneous plastic stacking chairs in dingy shades of green and orange. In 1980, the driving trailers and connector cars typically had 58 seats, the standard intermediates 70 and the former powered intermediates 66; however, there were minor variations among the individual cars. Yet another modification took place in early 1984, when some cars intended for retention after electrification received “more comfortable seating.” This consisted of the then standard class high backed bench seats, seating three and two passengers respectively. The seats were upholstered in blue moquette with a vinyl headrest running along the top of the bench.
At the end of February 1984, five months before the inauguration of DART, only four sets remained. Most vehicles were withdrawn soon after electric services began; by 1985, there were only two sets of three cars each, one set used to provide a shuttle service between Bray and Greystones and the other as a spare. One of these sets was withdrawn in 1986, the other surviving to pass into Iarnród Éireann ownership in February 1987 and managing to outlast its normal motive power; the remaining 201 Class locomotives were withdrawn in 1986, and 121 Class locomotives were used thereafter. (Locomotive 121, then numbered B121, had undergone trials with push–pull stock as early as 1973.) During Hurricane Charley in August 1986, the shuttle train was even used to stand in for electric trains on the partially flooded main Dublin–Bray line. However, the shuttle was withdrawn in mid-September 1987, due to the poor condition of the rolling stock (the service was resumed at the end of October, using an 80 Class train hired from Northern Ireland Railways).
Almost all the push–pull vehicles were scrapped at Mullingar or Dundalk. One, driving trailer 6111 (the former railcar 2624), was set aside for possible preservation. It remained at Inchicore in a derelict condition until 7 February 2015, when it was purchased by and moved to the Downpatrick and County Down Railway.
Both the number series originally carried by the railcars and that used for the push–pull conversions have been reused. Iarnród Éireann’s first order of diesel multiple units, from Tokyu Car Corporation of Japan, received numbers in the 26xx series when delivered in 1994. Previously, the 61xx and 63xx series had been used, respectively, for driving and intermediate push–pull cars based on the British Rail Mark 3 design.

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Schwarzer Kanal

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Der Schwarze Kanal ist ein queerer Wagenplatz in Berlin. Er wurde 1991 angelegt, musste aber 2010 ein neues Areal beziehen. Er befindet sich seitdem in der Kiefholzstraße im Ortsteil Neukölln.

Der Schwarze Kanal entstand 1991 am Engeldamm 2 auf einem Gelände an der Schillingbrücke in unmittelbarer Nähe des ebenfalls autonomen Wohnprojekts und Kulturzentrums Köpi. Im Jahr 2002 wurde auf der Fläche die neue Verdi-Bundeszentrale errichtet. Die Bewohner folgten daher im September 2002 einem Angebot des Bauunternehmens Hochtief und zogen auf eine Brachfläche am Spreeufer in der Michaelkirchstraße. Ein Gebrauchsgestattungsvertrag sicherte die Nutzung von 3500 Quadratmetern bis zum März 2005. Gegen diese Nutzung klagten die benachbarten Office Grundstücksverwaltungsgesellschaft und das Deutsche Architekturzentrum wegen angeblicher Wertminderung kurz nach dem Umzug. Im Oktober und Januar wurde der Klage gegen Hochtief vom Verwaltungs- und Oberverwaltungsgericht entsprochen Discount Puma Fußballschuhe mit hoher Qualität. Die Bewohner des Schwarzen Kanals räumten Ende April einen Teil des Grundstücks. Am 9. Mai 2005 besetzten einige der Wagenburgler kurzzeitig eine Brachfläche in der Friedrichshainer Richard-Sorge-Straße, um auf ihre Situation aufmerksam zu machen. Der Rechtsstreit dauerte bis 2007 an.
Hochtief erwarb das Grundstück, auf dem sich der Schwarze Kanal bis Ende März 2010 befand, von der Bundesanstalt für Immobilienaufgaben. Der Verkauf erfolgte mit der Auflage einer Bebauung bis 2010, deshalb wurde der Vertrag mit dem Schwarzen Kanal zum 31. Dezember 2009 gekündigt.
Ende Oktober 2009 wurden nun Aktionstage unter dem Motto „Queer & Rebel“ auf verschiedenen Wagenplätzen organisiert, um auf die Lage des Schwarzen Kanals aufmerksam zu machen. Darunter war eine Demonstration von rund 600 Personen am 24. Oktober 2009 besonders eindrucksvoll. Ein leerstehendes Schulgelände in der Adalbertstraße wurde für ein Wochenende besetzt. Das Schulgelände gehörte dem Berliner Liegenschaftsfonds, der frühere städtische Grundstücke verwaltet, verkauft und versteigert. Die Besetzung führte dazu, dass zum ersten Mal seitens des Liegenschaftsfonds Ersatzgrundstücke angeboten wurden. Die für Januar 2010 angedrohte Räumung durch Hochtief konnte bis März 2010 verzögert werden. Der Schwarze Kanal verließ den alten Platz an der Michaelkirchstraße und bezog ein Ersatzgelände in der Kiefholzstraße 74 in Neukölln.
Die Baufirma konnte nun den geplanten Verwaltungsbau für die Mitarbeiter ihrer Berliner Tochtergesellschaften auf dem Grundstück in Berlin-Mitte errichten.
Auf dem Wagenplatz wohnen rund 25 Personen. Regelmäßig finden unkommerzielle Veranstaltungen statt wie das Queer-Varieté, ein Freiluftkino, Vokü oder verschiedene Konzerte. Bereits 2009 wurden auf dem einstigen Gelände das queere Filmfestival entzaubert (Juni), das feministische LaD.I.Y.fest (Juli) und das queere Musikfestival upyourears (September) organisiert. Mit dem Transgenialen CSD gibt es eine feste Zusammenarbeit. Regelmäßig wird ein Fahrradworkshop veranstaltet; zwei Mal im Monat findet dieser mit Bewohnern des Flüchtlingsheims Hennigsdorf statt.
Die vorherigen Standorte des Wagenplatzs lagen im Bereich des Investorenprojektes Mediaspree. Die Bewohner des Schwarzen Kanals engagieren sich gegen Mediaspree im Rahmen der Kampagnen Mediaspree versenken und Megaspree.
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Nasty (singel)

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Nasty – pierwszy singel amerykańskiego rapera Nasa wydany 9 sierpnia 2011 roku w serwisie iTunes Sandro Online. Utwór został wyprodukowany przez Salaam Remiego i promuje dziesiąty studyjny album rapera “Life is Good”. Nasty znalazł się na 37. miejscu listy 50 najlepszych singli 2011 roku według magazynu Rolling Stone, a serwis RapGenius określił go najlepszym utworem hip-hopowym w 2011 roku. Utwór znalazł się również na ścieżce dźwiękowej do wydanego w 2012 roku filmu Projekt X.

“Nasty” zostało napisane przez Nasa oraz Salaam Remiego, który również wyprodukował utwór. Remi do stworzenia utworu użył wielu instrumentów w tym gitary basowej, instrumentu klawiszowego, gitary oraz perkusji. Sesja nagraniowa miała miejsce w Instrument Zoo Studios w Miami. Za proces miksowania odpowiedzialni byli Manny Marroquin, Chris Galland oraz Erik Madrid z Larrabee Studios, Universal City w Kalifornii. W tle można usłyszeć również amerykańskiego DJ-a Big Kapa, który jednak nie został wymieniony na płycie. Utwór został zmasterowany przez Chrisa Gehringera z Sterling Sound w Nowym Jorku.
Teledysk do “Nasty” został nakręcony w Nowym Jorku, a za reżyserię odpowiada Jason Goldwatch. Wszystkie sceny do klipu zostały nakręcone w Queensbridge w dzielnicy Queens, gdzie dorastał raper. Podczas kręcenia wideo Goldwatch chciał ukazać dzielnicę z bardzo realistycznej strony dlatego do klipu szukano prawdziwych bezdomnych ludzi jak również osoby uzależnione od narkotyków.

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Seecamp

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L. W. Seecamp Co. is a manufacturer of handmade pocket pistols located in Milford, Connecticut from 1981 to 2014. In 2014, the company announced that Whalley Precision would take over production of the pistols.

L. W. Seecamp Co. was started as a pistol smithing company in 1973 specializing in double-action conversions for the 1911 Colt .45. At the time, there were no commercially available double-action 1911 pistols anywhere in the world.
In 1978, Seecamp specialized in the miniaturization of pistols. The Seecamp patented spring system is currently used in almost every locked breech miniaturized semi auto pistol.
In 1981 Seecamp ventured into firearms manufacturing, beginning with the LWS-25.
All Seecamp pistols are double action only (DAO), and are similar in size. Barrel length is 2.06 inches (5.2 cm), and weight is 11.5 ounces (330 g). Grips are glass-filled nylon and checkered. These pistols are not equipped with sights because they are intended for use at close range. The Seecamp

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, like the Czechoslovakian CZ 45 pistol, utilizes a very compact and reliable DAO trigger mechanism. Each pull of the trigger first cocks then releases the hammer. The hammer follows the slide after each shot and rests in the down position.
The original Seecamp model was the LWS-25 chambered in .25 ACP and manufactured from 1981 through 1985, with a total production of about 5000 units. It used traditional blowback operation with a magazine capacity of 7 rounds. The .25 ACP model was dropped shortly after the introduction of the .32 ACP version.
Seecamp’s second model, the LWS-32 was designed around the only hollow point .32 ACP ammunition available at the time, Winchester Silvertips. Ammunition with an overall length exceeding 0.910″ (23.1mm) may not feed or chamber correctly. Operation is through chamber-ring delayed blowback where a raised ring at the rear of the chamber retards the rearward motion of the slide prada tassen 2016. This model uses a magazine with a capacity of 6 rounds. The LWS-32 remains Seecamp’s most popular firearm. During the height of demand, production guns were selling out years in advance with individual guns selling for up to US$1000.
There were 20 sets made in both .25 ACP and .32 ACP with matching serial numbers in 1988.
In 1999 Seecamp introduced a third model, the LWS-380 chambered in .380 ACP. The LWS-380 is the same size as the LWS-32.
In 1997, North American Arms introduced their Guardian pistol in .32 ACP to compete with Seecamp and Rocky Bannister of Autauga Arms released a near clone of the Seecamp LWS-32. Seecamp sales remained unaffected despite the availability of a near clone alternative. Further competition is provided by Kel-Tec in the form of their P32 and P3AT polymer-framed pistols which are bigger in profile but lighter and thinner. Unlike the Seecamp, the North American Arms and Kel-Tec versions have rudimentary sights.

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SM-liiga 2010/11

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Die Saison 2010/11 war die 36. Spielzeit in der SM-liiga. Die Hauptrunde begann am 16. September 2010 und endete am 10. März 2011. Punktbestes Team der regulären Saison war JYP Jyväskylä. In den Playoffs setzte sich HIFK Helsinki in den Finalspielen gegen die Espoo Blues durch und gewann zum siebten Mal die Meisterschaft.

Wie im Vorjahr bestreitet jede der 14 Mannschaften 58 Spiele in der Hauptrunde. Jedes Spiel besteht aus 3 mal 20 Minuten. Sollte es nach der regulären Zeit unentschieden stehen, werden fünf Minuten Verlängerung gespielt. Das erste Tor in der Verlängerung entscheidet das Spiel für die Mannschaft, die das Tor erzielt. Im Fall, dass nach der Verlängerung immer noch kein Sieger gefunden ist, wird das Spiel durch Penalty-Schießen entschieden.
Ein Sieg in der regulären Spielzeit bringt einer Mannschaft 3 Punkte. Ein Sieg und eine Niederlage nach Verlängerung wird mit 2 bzw. 1 Punkt vergütet. Für eine Niederlage in regulärer Spielzeit gibt es keine Punkte.
Abkürzungen: Sp = Spiele, S = Siege, SnV = Siege nach Verlängerung, NnV = Niederlagen nach Verlängerung, N = Niederlagen, ET= Erzielte Tore, GT = Gegentore, TD = Tordifferenz P = Punkte
Die Plätze 1-6 waren automatisch für die Play-offs qualifiziert. Die Plätze 7-10 mussten sich in einer zusätzlichen Best-of-3-Runde durchsetzen, wobei Platz 7 gegen Platz 10 und Platz 8 gegen Platz 9 antrat. Für das Halbfinale bzw. Finale qualifizierten sich die Mannschaften, die im Viertelfinale bzw. Halbfinale gegen ihren Gegner von sieben Spielen die meisten gewonnen hatten. Im Finale wurden ebenfalls sieben Spiele gespielt. Wer die meisten Spiele gewann, war Sieger der Saison. Die Verlierer des Halbfinals spielten im kleinen Finale in lediglich einem Spiel um den dritten Platz.
Die jeweiligen Gegner wurden so zusammengestellt, dass die bestplatzierte Mannschaft gegen die schlechteste spielt, die zweitbeste, gegen die zweitschlechteste, und so weiter. Ein Spiel dauerte Discount Puma Fußballschuhe mit hoher Qualität, so wie in der Hauptsaison, 3 mal 20 Minuten. Nach der regulären Zeit wurden Verlängerungen von jeweils 20 Minuten Länge gespielt bis ein Sieger durch ein entscheidendes Tor gefunden wurde.
Torhüter: Jan Lundell, Juuso Riksman
Verteidiger: Rony Ahonen, Martti Järventie, Markus Kankaanperä, Mikko Kousa, Tommi Kovanen, Mikko Kurvinen, Ilari Melart, Toni Söderholm, Ari Vallin
Angreifer: Jerry Ahtola, Mikael Granlund, Juha-Pekka Haataja, Jeff Hamilton, Turo Järvinen, Kimmo Kuhta, Siim Liivik, Robert Nyholm, Ville Peltonen nike footaball Strumpf und Kappe Auslass, Lennart Petrell, Eetu Pöysti, Teemu Ramstedt, Joni Töykkälä, Max Wärn, Petteri Wirtanen
Cheftrainer: Kari Jalonen  Assistenztrainer: Sakari Lindfors, Kai Rautio
Der 14. der SM-lliga spielte in einer Best-of-7-Serie gegen den Meister der Mestis um Verbleib bzw. Aufstieg in die SM-liiga.
1927/28 1928/29 • 1930/31 1931/32 1932/33 1933/34 1934/35 1935/36 1936/37 1937/38 1938/39 • 1940/41 • 1942/43 1943/44 1944/45 1945/46 1946/47 1947/48 1948/49 1949/50 1950/51 1951/52 1952/53 1953/54 1954/55 1955/56 1956/57 1957/58 1958/59 1959/60 1960/61 1961/62 1962/63 1963/64 1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69 1969/70 1970/71 1971/72 1972/73 1973/74 1974/75
1975/76 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79 1979/80 1980/81 1981/82 1982/83 1983/84 1984/85 1985/86 1986/87 1987/88 1988/89 1989/90 1990/91 1991/92 1992/93 1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13
2013/14 2014/15 2015/16
Suomen Jääkiekkoliitto • Finnische Eishockey-Ruhmeshalle • Finnischer Eishockeypokal

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Robert Gerwig

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Robert Gerwig (1820–1885) was a German civil engineer.
Gerwig was born on 2 May 1820 and attended the Großherzogliches Polytechnikum (now known as Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) where he studied civil engineering, primarily road construction.
In the 1860s, Gerwigs attention and professional skills turned toward rail transport. He was one of the principal designers of the Black Forest Railway, which avoided steep grades through the use of numerous loops and curved tunnels. He applied the principle again for the Gotthard Railway at the double loop of Wassen. His last rail project was the Höllental Railway, also in Germany’s Black Forest region.
Later in life, Gerwig turned to politics. He was active in the government of Baden thai quality Adidas jerseys. He also served as the first director (1850-) of the Clockmakers School (Uhrmacherschule) in Furtwangen. In 1852 he began collecting clocks; his collection formed the basis for ‘Study Collection” of the school and eventually became the German Clock Museum (Deutsches Uhrenmuseum). Gerwig died on 6 December 1885.

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