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6B (Fringe)

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6B” is the 14th episode of the third season of the American science fiction drama television series Fringe, and the 57th episode overall. In the episode, the fringe team investigates mysterious deaths at an apartment building, the result of a merging between the prime and parallel universes; while there, they encounter a woman who claims to be able to see the ghost of her deceased husband.

Story editors Glen Whitman and Robert Chiappetta co-wrote “6B”, while cinematographer Thomas Yatsko directed. The episode featured appearances from recurring actors Ryan McDonald and Seth Gabel as well as one-time guest stars Phyllis Somerville and Ken Pogue. The episode first aired in the United States on February 18, 2011 on the Fox network, and was watched by an estimated 4.1 million viewers. Television critics gave the episode generally mixed reviews.

Six partygoers simultaneously fall to the sidewalk outside the Rosencrantz apartment building in Brooklyn, apparently having jumped from a seventh floor balcony along with the balcony’s furniture. When the Fringe team investigates, Peter (Joshua Jackson) and Walter (John Noble) determine by the location of the bodies that they seem to have fallen through the balcony, as if it momentarily ceased to exist. From other stories of strange phenomena occurring throughout the building, Walter concludes that the same cracks in reality that have harmed the parallel universe are starting to appear in the prime one, with the building occupying a weak spot between universes.

Peter and Olivia (Anna Torv) are sent by Walter to observe the building as he monitors seismic equipment from the lab. Peter and Olivia go to a bar while waiting, where Olivia tries to kiss Peter but becomes uncomfortable, knowing of the influence of her parallel universe doppelganger, Fauxlivia (Torv), on Peter. Her emotional reaction triggers her ability to see once again the “shimmer” around Peter that marks him as a native of the parallel universe. She excuses herself and steps outside for some fresh air, followed by Peter. Olivia notices a similar glow emanating from the windows of apartment 6B in the Rosencrantz building, owned by the widow Mrs. Alice Merchant (Phyllis Somerville). When Olivia and Peter enter the apartment, Olivia (but not Peter) can see a shimmering figure that Alice claims is the ghost of her late husband Derek (Ken Pogue). Walter surmises that the figure is a parallel Derek seen across a crack between the universes. If the crack widens, Walter predicts they would see occurrences of the same singularities that have plagued the parallel universe, and suggests the use of the same amber-like compound they had previously recovered (“The Ghost Network”) to limit the damage. With Massive Dynamic’s resources, they are able to recreate the amber and a release system to encase the building, but hold it in reserve as a last resort only.

Olivia suggests the possibility that the effect is due to quantum entanglement between Alice in the prime universe and Derek in the parallel one drink bottles. Alice previously told Olivia that Derek died recently from trying to replace a faulty fuse after they flipped a coin to decide who would replace it, and Walter surmises that the parallel universe Alice died in a similar fashion due to a different outcome of the coin flip. Alice’s connection to the parallel universe Derek is causing the crack. As the building starts to exhibit the initial signs of a singularity and Broyles (Lance Reddick) prepares to release the amber, Olivia and Peter attempt to persuade Alice that the man she sees is not really her husband. Alice does not believe them until Derek starts to refer to their children. Alice, who is childless, realizes Peter and Olivia are telling the truth; the connection is broken and the effects on the building ebb away.

Though they did not need to deploy the amber, Walter realizes how close he was to making the same decisions that Walternate (Noble), Walter’s doppelganger in the parallel universe, had to make to save his universe; Nina (Blair Brown) helps to counsel him. Meanwhile, Olivia and Peter attempt to reconcile and rekindle their relationship. Though still cautious about moving forward, Olivia and Peter kiss and head to the bedroom upstairs at the Bishops’ home shop football tees.

In the parallel universe, Fauxlivia and Lincoln (Seth Gabel) investigate reports of a Fringe event in the Rosencrantz building, and speak with Derek, who tells them he has not noticed anything out of the ordinary. The two leave, and Derek is left paging sadly through a photo album filled with pictures of him and his late wife and their daughters best shaver review.

The episode was co-written by story editors Glen Whitman and Robert Chiappetta, while being directed by cinematographer and Fringe director of photography Thomas Yatsko. The last credit Whitman and Chiappetta received was for the season’s sixth episode, “6955 kHz”. Yatsko last directed the second season episode “White Tulip”. Alluding to the week the episode broadcast, executive producer Jeff Pinkner called “6B” “our Valentine’s Day episode. It’s all different versions of a love story.”

While filming, first assistant director Brian Giddens summarized the episode as “the fringe team [finding] out there’s been an accident on a balcony”. The focus of “6B” centered on the idea of ghosts, which was affirmed by actor Joshua Jackson, who called it “a Fringe ghost story”. Referring to the episode’s intensity level, Jackson noted that “on a scale of chile peppers, I’d say it’s high habanero”. Pinkner remarked that “6B” and the following episode “Subject 13” would “tell deep and meaningful sides of the Olivia and Peter story. One in the present [“6B”] and one in the past [“Subject 13].”

The episode guest starred Phyllis Somerville, known for her recent work on the Showtime series The Big C that ended in her character’s death. Somerville expressed hope that the science fiction nature of Fringe would convince The Big C writers to hire her back, commenting “maybe I can get those sci-fi folks to hook me up with a good gadget that will allow Marlene to come back to life and bug Laura Linney some more.” “6B” featured recurring guest actors Ryan McDonald and Seth Gabel as Massive Dynamic scientist Brandon Fayette and Agent Lincoln Lee, respectively. The episode also featured one-time guest star Ken Pogue as Alice’s husband Derek.

As with other Fringe episodes, Fox released a science lesson plan in collaboration with Science Olympiad for grade school children, focusing on the science seen in “6B”, with the intention of having “students learn about spectroscopy and how it can be used to determine certain characteristics of things.”

Some critics believed that the name of the apartment building, as well as Walter’s coin tosses coming up heads, are references to the 1966 tragicomedy Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, which in turn derives from the characters of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two minor characters in Shakespeare’s Hamlet.

“6B” was watched by an estimated 4.1 million viewers on its first broadcast, earning a ratings share of 1.5, up 7 percent from the previous week’s episode cheap football socks for sale. It led other shows in the same timeslot by more than 20 percent for the 18-34 adult viewership market, and second only to Kitchen Nightmares for the night. Three days of time shifted viewing increased the 18-49 adult rating to 2.3, a 52 percent increase from its previous rating of 1.5.

Entertainment Weekly staff writer Ken Tucker thought it was not “the best Fringe episode”, primarily because of “its Twilight Zone construction, with a supernatural event serving as a big, obvious metaphor for… the rift between lovers (Peter and Olivia; the elderly couple Alice and Derek)”. Tucker disliked Olivia’s return to “season-one-Olivia poker-faced dolorousnes” and also “worr[ied] about the imbalance between the series’ romantic, family, and mythology ingredients”. Andrew Hanson from the Los Angeles Times felt that the episode’s emphasis on emotions (instead of plain science) was “turning its back on the science that made [Fringe] great”. Hanson also wished the parallels between Walter and Walternate’s decisions had been explored further.

The A.V. Clubs Noel Murray graded the episode a B-, explaining that, despite the “nice moments (including a strong start and a sweet finish)”, the plot was minimal and there were many moments he was exasperated with the Peter-Olivia relationship. For Murray, the episode was “saved” by its small touches, such as when Alice is finally convinced the ghost is not her husband when he mentions “the girls miss you”.

In her 2011 book Into the Looking Glass: Exploring the Worlds of Fringe, author Sarah Clarke Stuart found parallels between the episode and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, which occurred several weeks after “6B” aired. Items of comparison included the “cracks” in the universe and shifting tectonic plates, and the “vortex” and the tsunami swallowing up entire villages. Clarke Stuart noted that “because of its destabilizing character, the natural world is often depicted as the antagonist in science fiction and adventure narratives” like Fringe.

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Mike Southon

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Michael Southon (* vor 1973 in Brighton, England) ist ein englischer Kameramann. Southon hat rund 40 Spielfilme, über 250 Musikvideos und rund 200 TV-Werbespots fotografiert. Er ist Mitglied der British Society of Cinematographers.

Nach dem Besuch der Westlain Grammar School in Brighton studierte Southon Fotografie am Brighton College of Art, wo er 1973 seinen Abschluss machte boys football socks. Seit den frühen 1970ern arbeitete er in den Ealing Studios der BBC zunächst als Kameraassistent und später als eigenständiger Kameramann. Mitte der 1980er verließ er die BBC und arbeitete freiberuflich.

Zwischen 1977 und 1995 fotografierte er mehrere Filme für die BBC-TV-Serie Omnibus. Diese Sendung wurde zwischen 1988 und 1995 regelmäßig Sonntags zur Hauptsendezeit ausgestrahlt und galt als „Flaggschiff“ des Kunstprogramms der BBC recycle glass bottles. Für das zweite der langjährigen Kunstformate der BBC, die Reihe Arena, die vom Broadcast Magazine, das Wochenmagazin der britischen TV- und Radio-Industrie, als eins der „50 einflussreichsten Programme aller Zeiten“ bezeichnet wurde, war er seit 1980 an mehreren Filmen als Kameramann beteiligt.

Zu seinen erfolgreichsten Musikvideos gehören November Rain von Guns N’ Roses, das mit Produktionskosten 1,5 Millionen Dollar zu den zwanzig teuersten Videos aller Zeiten gehört, Freedom! ’90 von George Michael, Regie David Fincher und Cream von Prince .

Von 1996 bis 1998 war er Präsident der British Society of Cinematographers.

David A. Ellis: In Conversation with Cinematographers. Lanham, New York, London: Rowman & Littlefield 2015. ISBN 978-1-4422-5109-0

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Gunnar Kopperud

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Gunnar Kopperud (født 28. mai 1946 i Oslo) er en norsk forfatter, journalist og medielærer. Kopperud har magistergrad i filosofi fra Universitetet i Oslo, og er utdannet skuespiller og instruktør i London.

I en årrekke har Kopperud vært utenriks- og krigsreporter i Afrika og Asia. Han har blant annet arbeidet for Dagbladet, Associated Press, NRK, Bistandsaktuelt og en rekke utenlandske aviser.

Erfaringer fra utenriksarbeidet gjenspeiles i hans fem første skjønnlitterære bøker: Den hvite apen (1996), Lysets tid (1998) wholesale football socks, Savn (1999), Politikapteinens fange (2003) og Innvielse (2005).

Romanen Internasjonalen (2006) handler om en norsk innlandskommune som rammes av økonomiske nedskjæringer på en rekke områder. Romanen omhandler også 1930-tallets arbeidskonflikter.

Hviske i mørket (2008), er en historisk roman om en ung norsk teologistudent som blir involvert i dansk-norsk slavehandel i Afrika på 1700-tallet. Romanen Tilfluktsrommet (2010) er en thriller fra et asylmottak i Nord-Norge. Romanen Under en kaldere himmel (2012) er en politisk thriller fra Norge på 1950-tallet.

Flere av bøkene er oversatt til forskjellige språk, deriblant engelsk. Kopperud er for øvrig faren til barnebokforfatter Bodil Vidnes-Kopperud best handheld running bottle.

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Charles L. Meach

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Charles L. Meach, III (1948–2004) was a mentally ill American murderer who killed five people in Alaska.

He was born in Traverse City, Michigan, to a mother who battled with schizophrenia. He left home at sixteen to travel and accumulated a long record of minor crimes.

He made his way to Anchorage, Alaska, and in 1973 he beat 22-year-old Robert Johnson who worked as a grocery clerk to death in Earthquake Park. He was charged with murder and found not guilty by reason of insanity and sent to a mental hospital in California. In 1980 psychiatrists decided that his illness was in remission and he was returned to Alaska under the supervision of the Alaska Psychiatric Institute. On May 3, 1982, he shot four teenagers to death in Russian Jack Springs Park; two 19-year-old boys while robbing their campsite and two 16-year-old girls who came to investigate the gunshots. He confessed to the killings when confronted and was charged. He again pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity, but was convicted and sentenced to 396 years in prison without the possibility of parole — the longest sentence in the state’s history football tees for sale.

In response to the shootings reusable glass bottles, the Alaska Legislature revised the criminal statutes on the sentencing of the mentally ill, providing for a new verdict “guilty, but mentally ill” where the convicted will serve their time in a mental institution until deemed healthy, then be transferred to prison for the rest of their sentence top college football uniforms. This revision did not apply to Meach’s trial glass water bottles for sale, though. The legislature also narrowed the definition of insanity and tightened the burden of proof for the basic insanity defense. This resulted in Alaska having one of the most strict conditions for the insanity defense of all the US states.

He died of natural causes on December 9, 2004 in the Cook Inlet jail.

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Botlikhsky District

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Botlikhsky District (Russian: Ботлихский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-one in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia phone holder when running. It is located in the west of the republic. The area of the district is 500 square kilometers (190 sq&nbsp best pill remover;mi).[citation needed] Its administrative center is the rural locality (a selo) of Botlikh. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 54,322, with the population of Botlikh accounting for 22.4% of that number.

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Botlikhsky District is one of the forty-one in the Republic of Dagestan. The district is divided into nine selsoviets which comprise thirty-seven rural localities. As a municipal division meat tenderizer seasoning, the district is incorporated as Botlikhsky Municipal District. Its nine selsoviets are incorporated as twenty rural settlements within the municipal district. The selo of Botlikh serves as the administrative center of both the administrative and municipal district.

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Freyr

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Freyr or Frey is one of the most important gods of Norse religion. The name is conjectured to derive from the Proto-Norse *frawjaz, “lord.” Freyr was associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and was pictured as a phallic fertility god; Freyr is said to “bestow peace and pleasure on mortals.” Freyr, sometimes referred to as Yngvi-Freyr, was especially associated with Sweden and seen as an ancestor of the Swedish royal house.

In the Icelandic books the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Freyr is presented as one of the Vanir, the son of the sea god Njörðr, as well as the twin brother of the goddess Freyja. The gods gave him Álfheimr, the realm of the Elves, as a teething present. He rides the shining dwarf-made boar Gullinbursti and possesses the ship Skíðblaðnir which always has a favorable breeze and can be folded together and carried in a pouch when it is not being used. He has the servants Skírnir, Byggvir and Beyla.

The most extensive surviving Freyr myth relates Freyr’s falling in love with the female jötunn Gerðr. Eventually, she becomes his wife but first Freyr has to give away his magic sword which fights on its own “if wise be he who wields it.” Although deprived of this weapon, Freyr defeats the jötunn Beli with an antler. However, lacking his sword, Freyr will be killed by the fire jötunn Surtr during the events of Ragnarök.

Like other Germanic deities, veneration of Freyr is revived in the modern period in Heathenry.

Written around 1080, one of the oldest written sources on pre-Christian Scandinavian religious practices is Adam of Bremen’s Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum. Adam claimed to have access to first-hand accounts on pagan practices in Sweden. He refers to Freyr with the Latinized name Fricco and mentions that an image of him at Skara was destroyed by the Christian missionary, Bishop Egino. His description of the Temple at Uppsala gives some details on the god.

In hoc templo, quod totum ex auro paratum est, statuas trium deorum veneratur populus, ita ut potentissimus eorum Thor in medio solium habeat triclinio; hinc et inde locum possident Wodan et Fricco. Quorum significationes eiusmodi sunt: ‘Thor’, inquiunt, ‘praesidet in aere, qui tonitrus et fulmina, ventos ymbresque, serena et fruges gubernat. Alter Wodan, id est furor, bella gerit, hominique ministrat virtutem contra inimicos. Tertius est Fricco, pacem voluptatemque largiens mortalibus’. Cuius etiam simulacrum fingunt cum ingenti priapo.

In this temple, entirely decked out in gold, the people worship the statues of three gods in such wise that the mightiest of them, Thor, occupies a throne in the middle of the chamber; Woden and Frikko have places on either side. The significance of these gods is as follows: Thor, they say, presides over the air, which governs the thunder and lightning, the winds and rains, fair weather and crops. The other, Woden—that is, the Furious—carries on war and imparts to man strength against his enemies. The third is Frikko, who bestows peace and pleasure on mortals. His likeness, too, they fashion with an immense phallus.

Later in the account Adam states that when a marriage is performed a libation is made to the image of Fricco.

Historians are divided on the reliability of Adam’s account. While he is close in time to the events he describes he has a clear agenda to emphasize the role of the Archbishopric of Hamburg-Bremen in the Christianization of Scandinavia. His timeframe for the Christianization of Sweden conflicts with other sources, such as runic inscriptions and archaeological evidence does not confirm the presence of a large temple at Uppsala. On the other hand, the existence of phallic idols was confirmed in 1904 with a find at Rällinge in Södermanland.

When Snorri Sturluson was writing in 13th century Iceland, the indigenous Germanic gods were still remembered although they had not been openly worshiped for more than two centuries.

In the Gylfaginning section of his Prose Edda, Snorri introduces Freyr as one of the major gods.

Njörðr í Nóatúnum gat síðan tvau börn, hét sonr Freyr en dóttir Freyja. Þau váru fögr álitum ok máttug. Freyr er hinn ágætasti af ásum. Hann ræðr fyrir regni ok skini sólar, ok þar með ávexti jarðar, ok á hann er gott at heita til árs ok friðar. Hann ræðr ok fésælu manna. Gylfaginning 24,

Njördr in Nóatún begot afterward two children: the son was called Freyr, and the daughter Freyja; they were fair of face and mighty. Freyr is the most renowned of the Æsir; he rules over the rain and the shining of the sun, and therewithal the fruit of the earth; and it is good to call on him for fruitful seasons and peace. He governs also the prosperity of men. Gylfaginning XXIV,

This description has similarities to the older account by Adam of Bremen but the differences are interesting. Adam assigns control of the weather and produce of the fields to Thor but Snorri says that Freyr rules over those areas. Snorri also omits any explicitly sexual references in Freyr’s description. Those discrepancies can be explained in several ways. It is possible that the Norse gods did not have exactly the same roles in Icelandic and Swedish paganism but it must also be remembered that Adam and Snorri were writing with different goals in mind. Either Snorri or Adam may also have had distorted information.

The only extended myth related about Freyr in the Prose Edda is the story of his marriage.

Þat var einn dag er Freyr hafði gengit í Hliðskjálf ok sá of heima alla. En er hann leit í norðrætt, þá sá hann á einum bœ mikit hús ok fagrt, ok til þess húss gekk kona, ok er hon tók upp höndum ok lauk hurð fyrir sér þá lýsti af höndum hennar bæði í lopt ok á lög, ok allir heimar birtusk af henni. Gylfaginning 37 workout waistband,

It chanced one day that Freyr had gone to Hlidskjálf, and gazed over all the world; but when he looked over into the northern region, he saw on an estate a house great and fair. And toward this house went a woman; when she raised her hands and opened the door before her, brightness gleamed from her hands, both over sky and sea, and all the worlds were illumined of her. Gylfaginning XXXVII,

The woman is Gerðr cheap genuine football shirts, a beautiful giantess. Freyr immediately falls in love with her and becomes depressed and taciturn. After a period of brooding, he consents to talk to Skírnir, his foot-page. He tells Skírnir that he has fallen in love with a beautiful woman and thinks he will die if he cannot have her. He asks Skírnir to go and woo her for him.

Þá svarar Skírnir, sagði svá at hann skal fara sendiferð en Freyr skal fá honum sverð sitt. Þat var svá gott sverð at sjálft vásk. En Freyr lét eigi þat til skorta ok gaf honum sverðit. Þá fór Skírnir ok bað honum konunnar ok fekk heitit hennar, ok níu nóttum síðar skyldi hon þar koma er Barey heitir ok ganga þá at brullaupinu með Frey. Gylfaginning 37,

Then Skírnir answered thus: he would go on his errand, but Freyr should give him his own sword-which is so good that it fights of itself;- and Freyr did not refuse, but gave him the sword. Then Skírnir went forth and wooed the woman for him, and received her promise; and nine nights later she was to come to the place called Barrey, and then go to the bridal with Freyr. Gylfaginning XXXVII,

The loss of Freyr’s sword has consequences. According to the Prose Edda, Freyr had to fight Beli without his sword and slew him with an antler. But the result at Ragnarök, the end of the world, will be much more serious. Freyr is fated to fight the fire-giant Surtr and since he does not have his sword he will be defeated.

Even after the loss of his weapon Freyr still has two magical artifacts, both of them dwarf-made. One is the ship Skíðblaðnir, which will have favoring breeze wherever its owner wants to go and can also be folded together like a napkin and carried in a pouch. The other is the boar Gullinbursti whose mane glows to illuminate the way for his owner. No myths involving Skíðblaðnir have come down to us but Snorri relates that Freyr rode to Baldr’s funeral in a wagon pulled by Gullinbursti.

Freyr is referred to several times in skaldic poetry. In Húsdrápa, partially preserved in the Prose Edda, he is said to ride a boar to Baldr’s funeral.

In a poem by Egill Skalla-Grímsson, Freyr is called upon along with Njörðr to drive Eric Bloodaxe from Norway. The same skald mentions in Arinbjarnarkviða that his friend has been blessed by the two gods.

In Nafnaþulur Freyr is said to ride the horse Blóðughófi (Bloody Hoof).

Freyr is mentioned in several of the poems in the Poetic Edda. The information there is largely consistent with that of the Prose Edda while each collection has some details not found in the other.

Völuspá, the best known of the Eddic poems, describes the final confrontation between Freyr and Surtr during Ragnarök.

Some scholars have preferred a slightly different translation, in which the sun shines “from the sword of the gods”. The idea is that the sword which Surtr slays Freyr with is the “sword of the gods” which Freyr had earlier bargained away for Gerðr. This would add a further layer of tragedy to the myth. Sigurður Nordal argued for this view but the possibility represented by Ursula Dronke’s translation above is equally possible.

Grímnismál, a poem which largely consists of miscellaneous information about the gods, mentions Freyr’s abode.

A tooth-gift was a gift given to an infant on the cutting of the first tooth. Since Alfheimr or Álfheimr means “World of Álfar (Elves)” the fact that Freyr should own it is one of the indications of a connection between the Vanir and the obscure Álfar. Grímnismál also mentions that the sons of Ívaldi made Skíðblaðnir for Freyr and that it is the best of ships.

In the poem Lokasenna, Loki accuses the gods of various misdeeds. He criticizes the Vanir for incest, saying that Njörðr had Freyr with his sister. He also states that the gods discovered Freyr and Freyja having sex together. The god Týr speaks up in Freyr’s defense.

Lokasenna also mentions that Freyr has servants called Byggvir and Beyla. They seem to have been associated with the making of bread.

The courtship of Freyr and Gerðr is dealt with extensively in the poem Skírnismál. Freyr is depressed after seeing Gerðr. Njörðr and Skaði ask Skírnir to go and talk with him. Freyr reveals the cause of his grief and asks Skírnir to go to Jötunheimr to woo Gerðr for him. Freyr gives Skírnir a steed and his magical sword for the journey.

When Skírnir finds Gerðr he starts by offering her treasures if she will marry Freyr. When she declines he gets her consent by threatening her with destructive magic.

Snorri Sturluson starts his epic history of the kings of Norway with Ynglinga saga, a euhemerized account of the Norse gods. Here Odin and the Æsir are men from Asia who gain power through their prowess in war and Odin’s skills. But when Odin attacks the Vanir he bites off more than he can chew and peace is negotiated after the destructive and indecisive Æsir-Vanir War. Hostages are exchanged to seal the peace deal and the Vanir send Freyr and Njörðr to live with the Æsir. At this point the saga, like Lokasenna, mentions that incest was practised among the Vanir.

Þá er Njörðr var með Vönum, þá hafði hann átta systur sína, því at þat váru þar lög; váru þeirra börn Freyr ok Freyja. En þat var bannat með Ásum at byggja svá náit at frændsemi. Ynglinga saga 4,

While Njord was with the Vanaland people he had taken his own sister in marriage, for that was allowed by their law; and their children were Frey and Freya. But among the Asaland people it was forbidden to intermarry with such near relations. Ynglinga saga 4,

Odin makes Njörðr and Freyr priests of sacrifices and they become influential leaders. Odin goes on to conquer the North and settles in Sweden where he rules as king, collects taxes and maintains sacrifices. After Odin’s death, Njörðr takes the throne. During his rule there is peace and good harvest and the Swedes come to believe that Njörðr controls these things. Eventually Njörðr falls ill and dies.

Freyr tók þá ríki eptir Njörð; var hann kallaðr dróttinn yfir Svíum ok tók skattgjafir af þeim; hann var vinsæll ok ársæll sem faðir hans. Freyr reisti at Uppsölum hof mikit, ok setti þar höfuðstað sinn; lagði þar til allar skyldir sínar, lönd ok lausa aura; þá hófst Uppsala auðr, ok hefir haldizt æ síðan. Á hans dögum hófst Fróða friðr, þá var ok ár um öll lönd; kendu Svíar þat Frey. Var hann því meir dýrkaðr en önnur goðin, sem á hans dögum varð landsfólkit auðgara en fyrr af friðinum ok ári. Gerðr Gýmis dóttir hét kona hans; sonr þeirra hét Fjölnir. Freyr hét Yngvi öðru nafni; Yngva nafn var lengi síðan haft í hans ætt fyrir tignarnafn, ok Ynglingar váru síðan kallaðir hans ættmenn. Freyr tók sótt; en er at honum leið sóttin, leituðu menn sér ráðs, ok létu fá menn til hans koma, en bjoggu haug mikinn, ok létu dyrr á ok 3 glugga. En er Freyr var dauðr, báru þeir hann leyniliga í hauginn, ok sögðu Svíum at hann lifði, ok varðveittu hann þar 3 vetr. En skatt öllum heltu þeir í hauginn, í einn glugg gullinu, en í annan silfrinu, í hinn þriðja eirpenningum. Þá hélzt ár ok friðr. Ynglinga saga 12,

Frey took the kingdom after Njord, and was called drot by the Swedes, and they paid taxes to him. He was, like his father, fortunate in friends and in good seasons. Frey built a great temple at Upsal, made it his chief seat, and gave it all his taxes, his land, and goods. Then began the Upsal domains, which have remained ever since. Then began in his days the Frode-peace; and then there were good seasons, in all the land, which the Swedes ascribed to Frey, so that he was more worshipped than the other gods, as the people became much richer in his days by reason of the peace and good seasons. His wife was called Gerd, daughter of Gymis, and their son was called Fjolne. Frey was called by another name, Yngve; and this name Yngve was considered long after in his race as a name of honour, so that his descendants have since been called Ynglinger. Frey fell into a sickness; and as his illness took the upper hand, his men took the plan of letting few approach him. In the meantime they raised a great mound, in which they placed a door with three holes in it. Now when Frey died they bore him secretly into the mound, but told the Swedes he was alive; and they kept watch over him for three years. They brought all the taxes into the mound, and through the one hole they put in the gold, through the other the silver, and through the third the copper money that was paid. Peace and good seasons continued. Ynglinga saga 12,

Þá er allir Svíar vissu, at Freyr var dauðr, en hélzt ár ok friðr, þá trúðu þeir, at svá mundi vera, meðan Freyr væri á Svíþjóð, ok vildu eigi brenna hann, ok kölluðu hann veraldar goð ok blótuðu mest til árs ok friðar alla ævi síðan. Ynglinga saga 13,

When it became known to the Swedes that Frey was dead, and yet peace and good seasons continued, they believed that it must be so as long as Frey remained in Sweden; and therefore they would not burn his remains, but called him the god of this world, and afterwards offered continually blood-sacrifices to him, principally for peace and good seasons. Ynglinga saga 13,

Freyr had a son named Fjölnir, who succeeds him as king and rules during the continuing period of peace and good seasons. Fjölnir’s descendants are enumerated in Ynglingatal which describes the mythological kings of Sweden.

The 14th century Icelandic Ögmundar þáttr dytts contains a tradition of how Freyr was transported in a wagon and administered by a priestess, in Sweden. Freyr’s role as a fertility god needed a female counterpart in a divine couple (McKinnell’s translation 1987):

Great heathen sacrifices were held there at that time, and for a long while Frey had been the god who was worshipped most there — and so much power had been gained by Frey’s statue that the devil used to speak to people out of the mouth of the idol, and a young and beautiful woman had been obtained to serve Frey. It was the faith of the local people that Frey was alive, as seemed to some extent to be the case, and they thought he would need to have a sexual relationship with his wife; along with Frey she was to have complete control over the temple settlement and all that belonged to it.

In this short story, a man named Gunnar was suspected of manslaughter and escaped to Sweden, where Gunnar became acquainted with this young priestess. He helped her drive Freyr’s wagon with the god effigy in it, but the god did not appreciate Gunnar and so attacked him and would have killed Gunnar if he had not promised himself to return to the Christian faith if he would make it back to Norway. When Gunnar had promised this, a demon jumped out of the god effigy and so Freyr was nothing but a piece of wood. Gunnar destroyed the wooden idol and dressed himself as Freyr, then Gunnar and the priestess travelled across Sweden where people were happy to see the god visiting them. After a while he made the priestess pregnant, but this was seen by the Swedes as confirmation that Freyr was truly a fertility god and not a scam. Finally, Gunnar had to flee back to Norway with his young bride and had her baptized at the court of Olaf Tryggvason.

Worship of Freyr is alluded to in several Icelanders’ sagas.

The protagonist of Hrafnkels saga is a priest of Freyr. He dedicates a horse to the god and kills a man for riding it, setting in motion a chain of fateful events.

In Gísla saga a chieftain named Þorgrímr Freysgoði is an ardent worshipper of Freyr waterproof bag for beach. When he dies he is buried in a howe.

Varð og sá hlutur einn er nýnæmum þótti gegna að aldrei festi snæ utan og sunnan á haugi Þorgríms og eigi fraus; og gátu menn þess til að hann myndi Frey svo ávarður fyrir blótin að hann myndi eigi vilja að freri á milli þeirra.

And now, too, a thing happened which seemed strange and new. No snow lodged on the south side of Thorgrim’s howe, nor did it freeze there. And men guessed it was because Thorgrim had been so dear to Frey for his worship’s sake that the god would not suffer the frost to come between them. –

Hallfreðar saga, Víga-Glúms saga and Vatnsdœla saga also mention Freyr.

Other Icelandic sources referring to Freyr include Íslendingabók, Landnámabók, and Hervarar saga.

Íslendingabók, written around 1125, is the oldest Icelandic source to mention Freyr, including him in a genealogy of Swedish kings. Landnámabók includes a heathen oath to be sworn at an assembly where Freyr, Njörðr, and “the almighty áss” are invoked. Hervarar saga mentions a Yuletide sacrifice of a boar to Freyr.

The 12th Century Danish Gesta Danorum describes Freyr, under the name Frø, as the “viceroy of the gods”.

Frø quoque deorum satrapa sedem haud procul Upsala cepit, ubi veterem litationis morem tot gentibus ac saeculis usurpatum tristi infandoque piaculo mutavit. Siquidem humani generis hostias mactare aggressus foeda superis libamenta persolvit. Gesta Danorum 3,

There was also a viceroy of the gods, Frø, who took up residence not far from Uppsala and altered the ancient system of sacrifice practised for centuries among many peoples to a morbid and unspeakable form of expiation. He delivered abominable offerings to the powers above by instituting the slaughter of human victims. Gesta Danorum 3, Fisher’s translation

That Freyr had a cult at Uppsala is well confirmed from other sources. The reference to the change in sacrificial ritual may also reflect some historical memory. There is archaeological evidence for an increase in human sacrifices in the late Viking Age though among the Norse gods human sacrifice is most often linked to Odin. Another reference to Frø and sacrifices is found earlier in the work, where the beginning of an annual blót to him is related. King Hadingus is cursed after killing a divine being and atones for his crime with a sacrifice.

Siquidem propitiandorum numinum gratia Frø deo rem divinam furvis hostiis fecit. Quem litationis morem annuo feriarum circuitu repetitum posteris imitandum reliquit. Frøblot Sueones vocant. Gesta Danorum 1,

[I]n order to mollify the divinities he did indeed make a holy sacrifice of dark-coloured victims to the god Frø. He repeated this mode of propitiation at an annual festival and left it to be imitated by his descendants. The Swedes call it Frøblot. Gesta Danorum 1, Fisher’s translation

The sacrifice of dark-coloured victims to Freyr has a parallel in Ancient Greek religion where the chthonic fertility deities preferred dark-coloured victims to white ones.

In book 9, Saxo identifies Frø as the “king of Sweden” (rex Suetiae):

Quo tempore rex Suetiae Frø, interfecto Norvagiensium rege Sywardo, coniuges necessariorum eius prostibulo relegatas publice constuprandas exhibuit. Gesta Danorum 9,

About this time the Swedish ruler Frø, after killing Sivard, king of the Norwegians, removed the wives of Sivard’s relatives to a brothel and exposed them to public prostitution. Gesta Danorum 9, Fisher’s translation

The reference to public prostitution may be a memory of fertility cult practices teal football socks. Such a memory may also be the source of a description in book 6 of the stay of Starcatherus, a follower of Odin, in Sweden.

Mortuo autem Bemono, Starcatherus ab athletis Biarmensibus ob virtutem accitus, cum plurima apud eos memoratu digna edidisset facinora, Sueonum fines ingreditur. Ubi cum filiis Frø septennio feriatus ab his tandem ad Haconem Daniae tyrannum se contulit, quod apud Upsalam sacrificiorum tempore constitutus effeminatos corporum motus scaenicosque mimorum plausus ac mollia nolarum crepitacula fastidiret. Unde patet, quam remotum a lascivia animum habuerit, qui ne eius quidem spectator esse sustinuit. Adeo virtus luxui resistit. Gesta Danorum 6,

After Bemoni’s death Starkather, because of his valour, was summoned by the Biarmian champions and there performed many feats worthy of the tellings. Then he entered Swedish territory where he spent seven years in a leisurely stay with the sons of Frø, after which he departed to join Haki, the lord of Denmark, for, living at Uppsala in the period of sacrifices, he had become disgusted with the womanish body movements, the clatter of actors on the stage and the soft tinkling of bells. It is obvious how far his heart was removed from frivolity if he could not even bear to watch these occasions. A manly individual is resistant to wantonness. Gesta Danorum 6, Fisher’s translation

A strophe of the Anglo-Saxon rune poem (c. 1100) records that:

This may refer to the origins of the worship of Ingui in the tribal areas that Tacitus mentions in his Germania as being populated by the Inguieonnic tribes. A later Danish chronicler lists Ingui was one of three brothers that the Danish tribes descended from. The strophe also states that “then he (Ingui) went back over the waves, his wagon behind him” which could connect Ingui to earlier conceptions of the wagon processions of Nerthus and the later Scandinavian conceptions of Freyr’s wagon journeys.

Ingui is mentioned also in some later Anglo-Saxon literature under varying forms of his name, such as “For what doth Ingeld have to do with Christ” and the variants used in Beowulf to designate the kings as ‘leader of the friends of Ing’. The compound Ingui-Frea (OE) and Yngvi-Freyr (ON) likely refer to the connection between the god and the Germanic kings’ role as priests during the sacrifices in the pagan period, as Frea and Freyr are titles meaning ‘Lord’.

The Swedish royal dynasty was known as the Ynglings from their descent from Yngvi-Freyr. This is supported by Tacitus, who wrote about the Germans: “In their ancient songs, their only way of remembering or recording the past they celebrate an earth-born god Tuisco, and his son Mannus, as the origin of their race, as their founders. To Mannus they assign three sons, from whose names, they say, the coast tribes are called Ingaevones; those of the interior, Herminones; all the rest, Istaevones”.

In 1904, a Viking Age statuette identified as a depiction of Freyr was discovered on the farm Rällinge in Lunda, Södermanland parish in the province of Södermanland, Sweden. The depiction features a cross-legged seated, bearded male with an erect penis. He is wearing a pointed cap and stroking his triangular beard. The statue is 9 centimeters tall and is displayed at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.

A part of the Swedish 12th century Skog Church Tapestry depicts three figures that has been interpreted as allusions to Odin, Thor, and Freyr, but also as the three Scandinavian holy kings Canute, Eric and Olaf. The figures coincide with 11th century descriptions of statue arrangements recorded by Adam of Bremen at the Temple at Uppsala and written accounts of the gods during the late Viking Age. The tapestry is originally from Hälsingland, Sweden but is now housed at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities.

Small pieces of gold foil featuring engravings dating from the Migration Period into the early Viking Age (known as gullgubber) have been discovered in various locations in Scandinavia, at one site almost 2,500. The foil pieces have been found largely on the sites of buildings, only rarely in graves. The figures are sometimes single, occasionally an animal, sometimes a man and a woman with a leafy bough between them, facing or embracing one another. The human figures are almost always clothed and are sometimes depicted with their knees bent. Scholar Hilda Ellis Davidson says that it has been suggested that the figures are taking part in a dance, and that they may have been connected with weddings, as well as linked to the Vanir group of gods, representing the notion of a divine marriage, such as in the Poetic Edda poem Skírnismál; the coming together of Gerðr and Freyr.

A phallic Viking Age statuette believed to depict Freyr

The Skog Church Tapestry portion possibly depicting Odin, Thor and Freyr

An example of the small gold pieces of foil that may depict Gerðr and Freyr

Norway

Sweden

Netherlands

Magnus Chase – the sword of summer , Rick Riordan

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Korhogo

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Géolocalisation sur la carte : Côte d’Ivoire

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Côte d’Ivoire

Korhogo est la quatrième ville de la Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’ouest), en termes de population et d’économie. Elle est située au Nord de la Côte d’Ivoire à 635 km d’Abidjan, et chef-lieu du District des Savanes et de la Région du Poro. En langue sénoufo, Korhogo signifie « héritage ».

Le département de Korhogo fait partie de la Région des Savanes, frontalière du Mali et du Burkina Faso. Korhogo se situe à 600 km d’Abidjan, la capitale économique et plus grande ville du pays et à 500 km de Yamoussoukro, la capitale politique. Son chef-lieu (9 °53 de latitude nord et 6 °49 de longitude ouest.

Sur un relief plat parsemé d’inselbergs, une « montagnes » (terme utilisé par la population locale), le « Mont Korhogo », domine la ville. Elle est d’origine volcanique et constitue le résultat géologique de la dorsale guinéenne, ligne de montagnes qui culmine au mont Nimba à 1 752 m.

Le climat est de type Aw selon la Classification de Köppen : il est très chaud et très sec (du type du climat soudanais), avec, en décembre et janvier, l’harmattan, un vent puissant venu du Sahara, qui abaisse considérablement la température. La grande saison sèche (octobre – mai) précède la saison des pluies marquée par deux pics pluviométriques, l’un en juin et l’autre en septembre.

La végétation du département, comme celle de toute la région, est celle de la savane arborée ou Savane ouest soudanienne, selon la classification des écorégions définie par le World Wide Fund for Nature. Elle se caractérise par des arbres et arbustes, d’une hauteur comprise entre 8 et 12 m, disséminés avec une densité de couvert de l’ordre de 25 à 35 %.

Les flamboyants et les hibiscus sont nombreux et la savane abrite des fromagers dont le bois grisé et léger est facile à travailler, des baobabs séculaires ainsi que des anacardiers, des nérés et des karités, désignés sous le nom d’arbres miracle dont le fruit peut se manger tel quel ou se préparer en « beurre » qui remplace l’huile et toutes les matières grasses dans les régions de savane et qui a aussi acquis depuis quelques années une grande réputation comme produit cosmétique running belt.

On y retrouve aussi les habituels arbres à fleurs tropicaux tels que les frangipaniers, les bougainvilliers, les acacias ou les ananas roses ainsi que de multiples variétés d’orchidées, spécialité du pays.

Dans la région vivent les calaos, animaux fétiches pour les sénoufos. On y croise aussi de nombreux babouins, des guenons, des phacochères, des potamochères, des perdrix et des francolins ainsi que des antilopes, essentiellement des cobes de Buffon et des guib harnachés. On y trouve également beaucoup d’agoutis dont la chair est très appréciée et les margouillats pullulent.

Jusqu’au XVe siècle, on ne connait pas de témoignage écrit sur le peuplement de la Côte d’Ivoire, contrairement aux royaumes situés plus au nord qui ont été décrits par les colonisateurs almoravides musulmans. Les spécialistes estiment toutefois que les Sénoufos, partis du delta interne du Niger, depuis la ville de Mopti au Mali, à la recherche de bonnes terres, arrivèrent au premier millénaire dans la région où ils résident actuellement. Korhogo, protégée des incursions guerrières par le Bandama Blanc devint alors la capitale et le siège de la plus importante chefferie sénoufo.

À la fin du XIXe siècle, la région sera sous la domination des troupes de l’Almamy Samory Touré, fondateur de l’empire du Wassoulou.

La Côte d’Ivoire n’a été réellement colonisée que tardivement, au regard des autres États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Jusqu’aux expéditions de Louis-Gustave Binger, Marchand (1887-1899), la zone forestière du centre était inconnue et le nord ne sera occupé qu’après la défaite de Samory Touré face à Gouraud, en 1898.

Bien que ses frontières aient été établies en 1904 à la suite du partage de l’Afrique entre les grandes puissances européennes qui a eu lieu au Congrès de Berlin, la « pacification » n’est achevée qu’en 1915. De 1932 à 1947, la Haute-Volta, aujourd’hui le Burkina Faso, a été démembrée, son territoire étant partagé entre le Mali, le Niger et la Côte d’Ivoire. Cela conduira alors la France à distinguer, administrativement, la « Basse Côte d’Ivoire » au sud et la « Haute Côte d’Ivoire » au nord, cette dernière entité incluant le territoire de l’actuel département de Boundiali.

Ceci peut être relié à la crise politico-militaire apparue violemment dans le pays à partir de , les habitants du nord n’étant pas considérés dans certains milieux du sud, adeptes du concept xénophobe de l’Ivoirité, comme étant de « vrais Ivoiriens » mais plutôt comme étant des maliens ou des burkinabés, considération accentuée par le fait que les populations qui habitent au nord du pays, sénoufos et malinkés, sont effectivement réparties sur les territoires de Côte d’Ivoire, du Mali et du Burkina Faso et sont en effet historiquement venues des régions situées plus au nord.

Tout au long du siècle, les habitants du département de Korhogo, comme tous ceux de l’AOF et de l’AEF, ont été soumis au travail forcé jusqu’à sa suppression en 1946 grâce à la « loi Houphouët-Boigny » qui satisfaisait les revendications du Syndicat Agricole Africain : était astreinte à 12 jours de travail annuel, toute personne de sexe masculin, de plus de 15 ans et de moins de 65 ans, et n’occupant pas de poste administratif ou militaire. De surcroit, la capitation, établie en 1901, qui devait théoriquement être perçue en argent, était souvent remplacée dans les faits par des journées de travail supplémentaire. C’est d’ailleurs, pour l’essentiel, dans le cadre de ce travail forcé que s’est développée l’immigration mossi, issue de la Haute-Volta, actuellement Burkina Faso. Beaucoup de jeunes seront également soustraits de leur village et enrôlés de force dans les régiments de tirailleurs sénégalais pour participer aux conflits sur les territoires européen, indochinois et algérien. De retour au pays, les survivants, minoritaires, sont devenus, des anciens combattants dont la pension, bien que faible et longtemps « gelée », et qui a très récemment été revalorisée à la suite du succès en France du film Indigènes, a fait vivre des familles entières dans les villages du département, phénomène qui, « par la force des choses », est en train de s’estomper. Il est vrai que beaucoup d’habitants du département vivent avec 15 000 Francs CFA mensuels, soit environ 25 euros (moins de 1 euro par jour), parfois même avec moins…

Dans le contexte de la Crise politico-militaire en Côte d’Ivoire, Korhogo a été prise le par les troupes du MPCI s’opposant au président de la république élu en 2000, Laurent Gbagbo.

Malgré les appels au cessez-le-feu de 2003, Korhogo est restée instable, soumise aux actions des factions rivales. Ainsi, en juin 2004, les forces loyales au chef rebelle, Guillaume Soro, ont prétendu que leurs opposants, fidèles du chef rebelle Ibrahim Coulibaly complotaient pour assassiner le secrétaire général du MPCI. Ces allégations ont déclenché des hostilités qui ont conduit à la mort de 22 personnes.

En août 2004, les militaires de l’ONU en Côte d’Ivoire, ont découvert trois charniers d’au moins 99 cadavres dans la ville.

Quelques jours après son arrestation survenue le à Abidjan par les forces d’Alassane Ouattara, Laurent Gbagbo fut assigné à résidence à Korhogo (son épouse Simone n’ayant pas été autorisée à le rejoindre) historic football shirts.

Avant l’indépendance du pays en 1960, tout le nord de la Côte d’Ivoire était placé sous l’autorité d’un « administrateur des colonies », le « commandant du cercle de Korhogo » qui administrait tout le territoire actuellement couvert par les départements de Korhogo, Ferkessédougou, Boundiali et Tingréla. Placé sous l’autorité du gouverneur, ce fonctionnaire administrait une région du pays, appelée « Cercle », en particulier en appliquant le code de l’indigénat en vigueur dans tout l’empire colonial français jusqu’à son abrogation en 1945 grâce à l’action du sénégalais Lamine Guèye. Le gouverneur était placé sous l’autorité du gouverneur général, lui-même dépendant du Ministre des Colonies. L’actuel département de Korhogo était alors une « subdivision » du cercle de Korhogo après avoir été une subdivision du cercle de Sikasso, situé dans l’actuel Mali, jusqu’en 1902, les deux autres subdivisions étant celles de Boundiali et de Ferkessédougou.

Une loi de 1978 institua 27 communes de plein exercice sur le territoire du pays.

Le département comporte plusieurs communes : Dikodougou, Guiembé, Karakoro, Komborodougou, Korhogo, M’Bengué sock cleats, Napié, Niofoin, Sinématiali, Sirasso, Tioroniaradougou.

Il comporte sept sous-préfectures : M’bengué, Niofoin, Sinématiali, Tioroniaradougou, Napié, Komboro et il comprend 846 localités rurales.

Après les évènements de 2002, la ville, comme toutes les localités du nord du pays, a été placée sous l’administration du MPCI, puis des Forces nouvelles de Côte d’Ivoire et se trouvait de fait sous l’autorité unique d’un « commandant de zone » (« com-zone »), Fofié Kouakou Martin, désigné en 2005 par le secrétaire général des Forces nouvelles de Côte d’Ivoire, Guillaume Soro, comme pour chacun des dix secteurs de la zone nord ivoirienne, Korhogo étant désignée depuis 2006 sous le terme de Zone no 10. Cette autorité existe toujours en 2008 et cohabite avec les fonctionnaires de l’état, préfet et sous-préfet, revenus dans la région.

Le mandat de l’Assemblée nationale élue en 2001 s’achevait le 16 décembre 2005. Mais, en raison de la crise politico-militaire de 2002, les élections législatives n’ont pas eu lieu et l’Assemblée nationale en place est demeurée en fonction et a conservé ses pouvoirs.

La ville compte plus de 200 000 habitants en 2010. La population de Korhogo, constituée principalement de sénoufos et de malinkés .

Depuis l’indépendance, la langue officielle dans toute la Côte d’Ivoire est le français. La langue véhiculaire, parlée et comprise par la majeure partie de la population, est le dioula mais la langue vernaculaire de la région est le sénoufo. Le français effectivement parlé dans le département de Korhogo, comme à Abidjan, est communément appelé le français populaire ivoirien ou français de moussa qui se distingue du français standard par la prononciation et qui le rend quasi inintelligible pour un francophone non ivoirien. Une autre forme de français parlé est le nouchi, un argot parlé surtout par les jeunes et qui est aussi la langue dans laquelle sont écrits deux magazines satiriques, Gbich! et Y a fohi. Le département de Korhogo accueillant de nombreux ivoiriens issus de toutes les régions du pays, toutes les langues vernaculaires du pays, environ une soixantaine, y sont pratiquées. Avec la présence dans la région de nombreux burkinabés venus travailler notamment dans les plantations de coton, on y parle aussi le Moré, langue des Mossis.

C’est à Elima, dans le sud du pays, que sera créée la première école officielle française en Côte d’Ivoire le 8 août 1887 avec pour instituteur Fritz-Émile Jeand’heur venu d’Algérie. Elle comptait alors 33 élèves africains qui seront les premiers lecteurs en langue française. Elle fonctionnera pendant trois ans avant d’être transférée en 1890 à Assinie par Marcel Treich-Laplène, le nouveau résident de France. D’autres écoles de village seront créées à partir de 1890, à Jacqueville, Grand-Bassam, Moossou, Tabou, Béttié, localités toutes situées sur le littoral du Golfe de Guinée. Elles fonctionnaient avec des maîtres d’écoles occasionnels et regroupaient environ 200 élèves en 1895. Le premier mars 1904, il y avait 896 élèves en Côte d’Ivoire pour une population estimée un peu supérieure à deux millions d’habitants. Korhogo accueillera l’une des 18 écoles de village créées en 1903. Elle comportait 30 élèves encadrés par un instituteur. Le premier instituteur ivoirien, Loua Beugré, sera diplômé en 1912, entré à l’école normale de Saint-Louis au Sénégal en 1909, après avoir été formé à Bingerville. En 1911, il y avait, en Côte d’Ivoire, un groupe scolaire central à Bingerville, 16 écoles régionales et 26 écoles de village dont deux seulement pour tout le nord du pays, à Odienné et à Korhogo. En 1915, l’ensemble des établissements scolaires en Côte d’Ivoire accueillait Modèle:Formanum:3317 élèves encadrés par un corps enseignant qui, outre les étrangers, comportait 17 instituteurs ivoiriens et 50 moniteurs ivoiriens. En 1924, il y avait Modèle:Formanum:4354 élèves dont seulement 211 filles. En 1932, Modèle:Formanum:6722 élèves dont 627 filles étaient scolarisés.

Jusqu’au début des années 50, il n’existait pas d’école secondaire à la colonie. Les premiers élèves ivoiriens scolarisés dans un lycée le seront en France via l’ Aventure 46, initiée par Félix Houphouët-Boigny, alors député du PDCI-RDA élu en novembre 1945 à l’Assemblée constituante, et menée à bien avec l’appui du gouverneur André Latrille en dépit des fortes réticences de l’administration coloniale.

En 2008, on dénombre, dans tout le département, 265 écoles primaires, 15 établissements secondaires et un établissement d’enseignement supérieur qui est une antenne délocalisée de l’Université de Bouaké.

Enseignement supérieur
Public

Enseignement primaire
Public

Enseignement secondaire
Lycée Public

Lycée privé

Collège public

Collège privé

Le département de Korhogo compte aussi une Institution de Formation et d’Éducation Féminine située au chef-lieu, l’un des 90 centres de cette nature existant dans le pays. Cette institution a pour objet de permettre aux femmes analphabètes, aux jeunes filles non scolarisées ou déscolarisées, aux femmes agricultrices de trouver une opportunité pour le développement d’aptitudes nouvelles permettant leur insertion ou leur autonomisation.

Korhogo est le siège d’un archevêché catholique.

Le département compte un centre hospitalier régional de 372 lits, un hôpital, 65 centres de santé, un centre de transfusion sanguine, un centre antituberculeux, des dispensaires et neuf pharmacies.

Le manque de personnel qualifié se fait sentir, comme dans toute la région des Savanes puisque pour les quatre départements qui la constituent, ceux de Boundiali, Korhogo, Tingréla et Ferkessédougou, 45 médecins exerçaient en 2001 et seulement 23 en 2005 pour une population totale de 1 215 000 habitants. Le nombre des infirmiers a également baissé de 254 à 67 sur cette même période.

L’aéroport de Korhogo (code AITA : HGO, code OIAC DIKO) dispose d’une piste bitumée de 2 100 m et reçoit des vols intérieurs de la compagnie Air Côte d’Ivoire. Il met Abidjan à 2h30 de vol. Des autocars de différentes compagnies assurent le voyage régulier aller-retour de Korhogo vers les autres villes ivoiriennes et vers les villes du Burkina Faso. Les villes voisines sont aussi reliées à Korhogo à l’aide de taxis brousse.

Les habitants de la région sont soit agriculteurs soit éleveurs s’ils ne sont ni commerçants ni artisans ni fonctionnaires.

Les aubergines, la salade, le piment, les tomates et les oignons, principales cultures maraichères, sont également cultivés de façon intensive dans le département pour alimenter le marché local qui en est gros consommateur. Ce secteur des cultures maraichères, essentiellement exploité par les femmes, bénéficie de la coopération allemande qui fournit du matériel agricole.

Le sous-sol de la région est riche de fer, d’or et de diamant.

À la suite du désengagement de l’État ivoirien des activités productrices de coton et la privatisation de la Compagnie ivoirienne de développement du textile ( CIDT), il a été créé le par le consortium IPS (WA) et la Société Paul Reinhart Ag, la société Ivoire Coton qui est propriétaire à Korhogo de deux usines d’égrenage de coton. Le coton constitue la principale richesse de la région, au point d’y être appelé l’« or blanc ».

De façon artisanale, de nombreux tisserands transforment le coton en pièces de tissu et les couturiers fabriquent ensuite des boubous, des pagnes et des vêtements de toute nature sur mesure à la demande des clients et clientes, la couture étant ici une activité pratiquée par la gent masculine.

La position de carrefour de la ville de Korhogo correspond à son activité commerciale matérialisée par un marché important dont l’activité est permanente.

La ville de Korhogo dispose d’une salle de cinéma fermée, à la différence de beaucoup de villes africaines dotées de cinémas en plein air. L’essentiel de sa programmation propose des films de karaté, des films égyptiens ou des films indiens venus de Bollywood. Comme dans la plupart des pays du tiers-monde, le cinéma indien est très apprécié en Afrique de l’Ouest. En 2003, il a été organisé à Korhogo le Festiko, festival international du film documentaire industriel et publicitaire .

La ville est équipée d’un centre culturel, le Centre culturel Womiengnon qui a fait l’objet d’importants travaux de rénovation.

La ville comporte un musée, le musée Péléféro Gon COULIBALY.

Dans les années 1980, il était organisé à Korhogo un festival culturel, le Katana Festival dont la première édition a eu lieu en janvier 1983 avec, parmi les invités étrangers, le Ballet national de Guinée. Parmi les personnalités invitées à ce festival figuraient Balla Keita, natif de la ville et alors ministre de l’éducation nationale, et Louis Le Pensec, alors ministre français de la mer.

Un quartier entier de la ville, le quartier Koko, regroupe les nombreux sculpteurs de la ville qui fabriquent des objets en teck ou en bois de fromager.

Au centre de Korhogo s’élève une mosquée de style soudanais caractérisée par un style d’architecture introduit dans l’empire du Mali au XIVe siècle.

Mosquée de Korhogo

Mosquée de Korhogo

Les civilisations africaines ont toujours privilégié la fonction à la forme, la beauté n’étant pas recherchée en soi. Ce que les collectionneurs « du nord » appellent « l’art africain », voire, étonnamment, les « arts premiers », désigne en fait des objets usuels ou culturels qui, désacralisés ou inutilisés aujourd’hui, sont exposés ou vendus comme pièces de collections. Il en va ainsi, pour le département de Korhogo, des « chaises sénoufos » et des « portes sénoufos » joliment décorées et stylisées et dont l’usage premier est d’abord utilitaire.

Les compétitions sportives se déroulent exclusivement au chef-lieu du département, les autres localités ne disposant d’aucune infrastructure dédiée : la ville de Korhogo dispose d’un club de football, le Club Omnisports de Korhogo, évoluant en MTN Ligue 2 et disputant ses matchs sur le terrain du Stade Municipal de Korhogo. Comme dans la plupart des villes du pays, il est organisé, de façon informelle, des tournois de football à 7 joueurs qui, très populaires en Côte d’Ivoire, sont dénommés Maracanas. Le handball est également pratiqué, particulièrement par les filles, élèves des lycées de la ville. En 2008, Korhogo a constitué la ville d’arrivée du Tour de l’or blanc, de retour dans le nord du pays après plusieurs années d’absence en raison de la crise de 2002, et remporté par Issiaka Fofana, l’étape Korhogo-Ferkessédougou-Korhogo étant remportée par le burkinabé Abdul Wahab Sawadogo.

Les danses traditionnelles, exécutées à chaque cérémonie de la région, sont le N’Goron, danse sacrée, et le Boloye, également appelé danse des hommes panthères car l’habit du danseur imite fidèlement le pelage de ces félins, et qui est exécuté pour clore les rites initiatiques, particulièrement le Poro.

« Bien qu’ayant vécu dans plusieurs pays, mon plus grand dépaysement aura été de voyager dans mon propre pays, en allant dans le nord, vers Korhogo, où les gens sont différents, l’habillement est différent, le climat est différent, la nature est différente… »

(Véronique Tadjo, écrivaine ivoirienne, Télévision française, le )

Document utilisé pour la rédaction de l’article Sources principales de l’article

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